12960Released June 24, 2022 ( 2022 Week 7 )

This week includes…..

• Weather synopsis
• Predicted grasshopper development
• Predicted bertha armyworm development
• Predicted wheat midge development
• Weekly wind trajectory report
• Provincial entomologist updates
• Links to crop reports
• Previous posts
….and Monday’s Insect of the Week for Week 7 – it’s the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines!

Wishing everyone good weather!

To receive free Weekly Updates automatically, please subscribe to the website!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

12962Weather synopsis ( 2022 Week 7 )

TEMPERATURE: This past week (June 13-19, 2022) the average daily temperature (prairies) was 1 °C warmer than the previous week and 1.5 °C warmer than normal (Fig. 1). Though the prairie-wide average 30-day temperature (May 21 – June 19, 2022) was similar to long-term average values, the average 30-day temperature for May 21 to June 19 was 1.5 °C warmer than the average 30-day temperature for May 14 to June 12 (Fig. 2).

Figure 1. Seven-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of June 13-19, 2022.
Figure 2. 30-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 21-June 19, 2022.

The growing season (April 1 – June 19, 2022) temperature for the prairies has been 1 °C cooler than climate normal values. The growing season has been warmest across western Saskatchewan and the southern and central regions of Alberta (Fig. 3; Table 1).

Figure 3. Growing season average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to June 19, 2022.
Table 1. Growing season (April 1 – June 19, 2022) temperature and rainfall summary for specific locations across the Canadian prairies.

PRECIPITATION: Weekly (June 13-19) rainfall varied across the prairies. Significant rainfall was reported across Alberta (Fig. 4). Rainfall amounts were generally less than 10 mm for most of Saskatchewan. 30-day accumulation amounts have been well above average across large areas of Manitoba and Alberta while rainfall accumulation has been well below normal across Saskatchewan (Fig. 5).

Figure 4 Seven-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of June 13-19, 2022.
Figure 5. 30-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies the past 30 days (May 21-June 19, 2022).

Growing season rainfall for April 1 to June 19, 2022, continues to be greatest across Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan; rain amounts have been below normal across central Saskatchewan and near normal for Alberta (Fig. 6; Table 1).

Figure 6. Growing season cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to June 19, 2022.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-June 20, 2022) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (June 14-20, 2022), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < -2 to >10 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <21 to >36 °C. Again this week, areas of the prairies hit warmer temperatures with a slight bump in the number of sites experiencing days at or above 25 °C across the prairies but little increase in the sites recording days at or above 30 °C. Access these maps and more using the AAFC Maps of Historic Agroclimate Conditions interface.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be accessed at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network. The AAFC Canadian Drought Monitor also provides geospatial maps updated monthly.

12982Predicted grasshopper development ( 2022 Week 7 )

The grasshopper (Acrididae: Melanoplus sanguinipes) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Model outputs provided below as geospatial maps are a tool to help time in-field scouting on a regional scale but local development can vary and is only accurately assessed through in-field scouting.

Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest to support in-field scouting.

Model simulations were used to estimate percent grasshopper egg development and hatch as of June 19, 2022. Warmer temperatures across the southern prairies have resulted in increased rates of grasshopper egg development and hatch is now well underway. Egg hatch may be nearly complete for some regions.

Last week, the average embryological development was 83 %. This week, average egg development is predicted to be 90 % and is 2 % greater than the long-term development rate for this time in the growing season. Hatch is progressing across the prairies, with southern and central regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan having hatch rates greater than 75% (Fig. 1). Compared to last week, recent warm conditions across southern Manitoba have resulted in higher hatch rates.

Figure 1. Predicted migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) hatch (%) across the Canadian prairies as of June 19, 2022.

Based on estimates of average nymphal development, first to third instar nymphs should be occurring across southern and central regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan (Fig. 2). Warm, dry conditions across central and southern regions of Saskatchewan have resulted in rapid grasshopper development.

Figure 2. Predicted migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) development, presented as average instar, across the Canadian prairies as of June 19, 2022.

Grasshopper Scouting Tips:
Review grasshopper diversity and photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting from egg hatch and onwards.
● Access the PPMN’s Grasshopper Monitoring Protocol as a guide to help implement in-field monitoring.
● Review grasshopper lifecycle, damage and scouting and economic thresholds to support sound management decisions enabling the preservation of beneficial arthropods and mitigation of economic losses.

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page. Review the historical grasshopper maps based on late-summer in-field counts of adults performed across the prairies.

12986Predicted bertha armyworm development ( 2022 Week 7 )

Compared to long-term averages, bertha armyworm (BAW) development has been delayed thus far in the 2022 growing season. Pupal BAW development is progressing across the prairies. This week, pupal development is predicted to complete and adult emergence is expected to occur across most of the prairies (Fig. 1). Adult emergence should have already begun across a region extending from Lethbridge to Regina and north to Saskatoon. Adult emergence near Regina, Saskatchewan (Fig. 2) is predicted to be one week ahead of central Alberta (Fig. 3). Oviposition should begin over the next 7-10 days.

Figure 1. Predicted bertha armyworm (Mamestra configurata) pupal development (%) across the Canadian prairies as of June 19, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted bertha armyworm (Mamestra configurata) populations near Regina, Saskatchewan as of June 19, 2022 (projected to June 30, 2022, based on long-term average conditions).
Figure 3. Predicted bertha armyworm (Mamestra configurata) populations near Lacombe, Alberta as of June 19, 2022 (projected to June 30, 2022, based on long-term average conditions).

Use the images below (Fig. 4) to help identify moths from the by-catch that will be retained in the green phermone-baited unitraps.

Figure 4. Stages of bertha armyworm from egg (A), larva (B), pupa (C) to adult (D).
Photos: J. Williams (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada)

12992Predicted wheat midge development ( 2022 Week 7 )

Soil moisture conditions in May and June can have significant impacts on wheat midge emergence. Where wheat midge cocoons are present in soil, the 2022 growing season’s rainfall during May and June should be sufficient to terminate diapause and induce the larvae to move to the soil surface. The map in Figure 1 provides a visual representation of regional estimates of wheat midge movement to the soil surface, where pupal development will occur, then adults will begin to emerge. Remember – the rate of development and timing of adult midge emergence varies at the field level and can only be verified through in-field scouting. Fields within regions receiving sufficient rainfall should soon scout! Midge flight coinciding with the beginning of anthesis is a crucial point when in-field counts of wheat midge on plants are carefully compared to the economic thresholds.

As of June 19, 2022, wheat midge development is predicted to be most advanced in eastern Saskatchewan and the western Peace River region (British Columbia) (Fig. 1). The model was projected to July 10 (based on long-term average conditions) to predict potential wheat midge stages in early July. Simulations indicate that midge development will be more advanced at Estevan, Saskatchewan (Fig. 2) and Melfort, Saskatchewan (Fig. 3), than at Grande Prairie, Alberta (Fig. 4). Adults should begin to emerge in late June or early July.

Figure 1. Percent of wheat midge larval population (Sitodiplosis mosellana) that have moved to the soil surface across western Canada, as of June 19, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted development of wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) populations near Estevan, Saskatchewan, as of June 19, 2022 (projected to July 10, 2022, based on long-term average conditions)
Figure 3. Predicted development of wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) populations near Melfort, Saskatchewan, as of June 19, 2022 (projected to July 10, 2022, based on long-term average conditions)
Figure 3. Predicted development of wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) populations near Grande Prairie, as of June 19, 2022 (projected to July 10, 2022, based on long-term average conditions)

Information related to wheat midge biology and monitoring can be accessed by linking to your provincial fact sheet (Saskatchewan Agriculture or Alberta Agriculture & Forestry).  Alberta Agriculture and Forestry has a YouTube video describing in-field monitoring for wheat midge.  

Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Wheat midge pages extracted from the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and Field Guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

13003Provincial insect pest report links ( 2022 Week 7 )

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so link to their information:

MANITOBA’S Crop Pest Updates for 2022 are up and running! Access a PDF copy of the June 22, 2022 issue here. Bookmark their Crop Pest Update Index to readily access these reports and also bookmark their insect pest homepage to access fact sheets and more!
Grasshopper nymphs, lygus bugs, pea leaf weevils in MB were new additions to the June 22 issue.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for MB – “So far, diamondback moth has been found in 33 traps.” Read the report on Page 5 of the June 22, 2022 issue OR review a more detailed summary of cumulative trap counts from 51 sites deployed across the province.
Armyworm pheromone trap monitoring is underway in MB – Review the current cumulative counts in the June 22, 2022 issue and find a link to review a map of counts compiled from Manitoba, Eastern Canada and several northeast states of the United States.

SASKATCHEWAN’S Crop Production News for 2022 is up and running! Access the online Issue #2 (June 2022) here and find updates linking to Canola Watch’s 8-steps for making the flea beetle spray decision, details for early season grasshoppers plus descriptions of invasive fruit insect surveys and wireworms as a potential cause of poor emergence, Bookmark their insect pest homepage to access important information! Crops Blog Posts are updated through the growing season.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for SK – Access this link to review counts summarized regionally. So far, “diamondback moth is arriving in Saskatchewan, but numbers are currently low”.

ALBERTA’S Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage links to insect survey maps, live feed maps, insect trap set-up videos, and more. There is also a Major Crops Insect webpage. The new webpage does not replace the Insect Pest Monitoring Network page. Remember, AAF’s Agri-News occasionally includes insect-related information. Twitter users can connect to #ABBugChat Wednesdays at 10:00 am.
Bertha armyworm pheromone trap monitoring update for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map. So far, low numbers of bertha armyworm moths have been intercepted across the province.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map. So far, low numbers of diamondback moth have been intercepted across the province.
Cutworm live monitoring map for AB – Reports continue to come in so refer to the Live Map to review areas where cutworms are being found. Use this online form to report cutworms in Alberta.

13005Crop report links ( 2022 Week 7 )

Click the provincial name below to link to online crop reports produced by:
Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development (or access a PDF copy of the June 21, 2022 report).
Saskatchewan Agriculture (or access a PDF copy of the June 14-20, 2022 report).
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (or access a PDF copy of the June 14, 2022 report).

The following crop reports are also available:
• The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces a Crop Progress Report (access a PDF copy of the June 21, 2022 edition).
• The USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (access a PDF copy of the June 22, 2022 edition).

13000Previous posts ( 2022 Week 7 )

As the growing season progresses, the various Weekly Update topics move on and off the priority list for in-field scouting but they should be kept at hand to support season-long monitoring. Click to review these earlier 2022 Posts (organized alphabetically):
2021 Risk and forecast maps
Alfalfa weevil – predicted development (Wk06)
Cereal leaf beetle – predicted development (Wk06)
Crop protection guides (Wk02)
Cutworms (Wk02)
European corn borer – Canadian standardized assessment 2.0 (Wk02)
Field heroes (Wk06)
Field guides – New webpage to access (Wk02)
Flea beetles (Wk01; IOTW)
iNaturalist.ca (Wk02)
Invasive insect species – Early detection (Wk02)
Scouting charts – canola and flax (Wk03)
Ticks and Lyme disease (Wk02)
Wind trajectory reports released in 2022

12856Released June 17, 2022 ( 2022 Week 6 )

This week includes…..

• Weather synopsis
• Predicted grasshopper development
• Predicted alfalfa weevil development
• Predicted cereal leaf beetle development
• Predicted bertha armyworm development
• Predicted wheat midge development
• Weekly wind trajectory report
• Field heroes NEW Pest & Predator podcast links
• Provincial entomologist updates
• Links to crop reports
• Previous posts
….and Monday’s Insect of the Week for Week 6 – it’s the flat wireworm, Aeolus mellillus!

Wishing everyone good weather!

To receive free Weekly Updates automatically, please subscribe to the website!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

12858Weather synopsis ( 2022 Week 6 )

TEMPERATURE: The 2022 growing season has been cooler than normal. Rainfall has been below normal for Alberta and western Saskatchewan while rainfall amounts have been well above normal for eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This past week (June 6-12, 2022) average daily temperatures were generally warmer than in the previous week. The warmest conditions occurred across southern Manitoba, a region extending from Regina to Saskatoon and southwest to Lethbridge, and in the northern Peace River region (Fig. 1). The average temperature across the prairies was 2 °C warmer than normal.

Figure 1. Seven-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of June 6-12, 2022.

Though the prairie-wide average 30-day temperature (May 14 – June 12, 2022) was similar to the long-term average value, the average was 1.5 °C warmer than the previous week. Average temperatures have increased across most of the prairies (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. 30-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 14-June 12, 2022.

The prairie-wide average growing season (April 1-June 12, 2022) temperature was 1 °C warmer than last week; the average growing season temperature for the prairies has been 1 °C cooler than climate normal values. The growing season continues to be cooler in Manitoba than Saskatchewan and Alberta (Fig. 3).

The growing season (April 1 – June 5, 2022) has been cooler in Manitoba than in Saskatchewan and Alberta (Fig. 4; Table 1). The average growing season temperature for the prairies has been 1.5 °C cooler than climate normal values.

Figure 3. Growing season average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to June 12, 2022.

PRECIPITATION: Seven-day cumulative rainfall ranged between 0 and 42 mm across the prairies, with highest rainfall amounts (20-40 mm) occurring in a region extending from Hanna to Calgary and south to Lethbridge (Fig. 4). Rainfall amounts were generally less than 10 mm for most of Saskatchewan.

Figure 4 Seven-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of June 6-12, 2022.

30-day accumulation amounts have been well above average across Manitoba but well below normal across southern and western Saskatchewan (Fig. 5). Growing season rainfall for April 1 – June 12, 2022, continues to be greatest across Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan; rain amounts have been below normal across most of western Saskatchewan and Alberta (Fig. 6).

Figure 5. 30-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies the past 30 days (May 14-June 12, 2022).
Figure 6. Growing season cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to June 12, 2022.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-June 13, 2022) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (June 7-13, 2022), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < -1 to >9 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <17 to >28 °C. Some areas of the prairies hit warmer temperatures with a slight bump in the number of sites experiencing days at or above 25 °C across the prairies yet no sites have recorded days at or above 30 °C. Access these maps and more using the AAFC Maps of Historic Agroclimate Conditions interface.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be accessed at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network. The AAFC Canadian Drought Monitor also provides geospatial maps updated monthly.

12878Predicted grasshopper development ( 2022 Week 6 )

The grasshopper (Acrididae: Melanoplus sanguinipes) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest. Review the historical grasshopper maps based on late-summer adult in-field counts performed across the prairies.

Model simulations were used to estimate percent grasshopper egg development and hatch as of June 12, 2022. Warmer temperatures over the past 30 days have resulted in increased rates of grasshopper development across Saskatchewan and Alberta; wetter/cooler conditions across eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba have resulted in delayed development.

Last week, average embryological development was 76 %. This week, average egg development is predicted to be 83 % and is 1 % greater than the long-term development rate. Hatch is progressing across southern and central regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan with hatch rates that range between 15 and 60% (Fig. 1). First to third instar nymphs should be occurring across southern and central regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Simulations indicate that 5-10% of the population has hatched across southern and central regions of Manitoba.

Figure 1. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development (%) across the Canadian prairies as of June 12, 2022.

Risk estimates, based on meteorological inputs, were used to assess the impact of weather on grasshopper development and population growth potential (Fig. 2). Grasshopper risk is greatest in areas that are warmer and drier than normal. As of June 12, 2022, model output indicates that potential risk is greatest across a region that extends from Lethbridge to Swift Current and Saskatoon. Relative to last week, risk has increased for localized areas across the Peace River region. The simulation indicates that even though temperatures are suitable for grasshopper development, excessive moisture across most of Manitoba has reduced the potential risk from grasshoppers. Overall risk is predicted to be similar to long-term average risk and is currently well below potential risk predictions that were produced for the 2021 growing season. 

Figure 2. Predicted risk for the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) across the Canadian prairies as of June 12, 2022.

Grasshopper Scouting Tips:
Review grasshopper diversity and photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting from egg hatch and onwards.
● Access the PPMN’s Grasshopper Monitoring Protocol as a guide to help implement in-field monitoring.
● Review grasshopper lifecycle, damage and scouting and economic thresholds to support sound management decisions enabling the preservation of beneficial arthropods and mitigation of economic losses.

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12883Predicted alfalfa weevil development ( 2022 Week 6 )

The alfalfa weevil (AAW) (Curculionidae: Hypera postica) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Model simulations for alfalfa weevil (AAW) indicate third instar larvae should now be appearing across the prairies. Development is similar to long-term average values. AAW development in central Saskatchewan (Fig. 1) is slower than AAW development in southern Alberta (Fig. 2).

Figure 1. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Saskatoon SK as of June 12, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Medicine Hat AB as of June 12, 2022.

Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Alfalfa Weevil Page extracted from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12888Predicted cereal leaf beetle development ( 2022 Week 6 )

The cereal leaf beetle (CLB) (Chysomelidae: Oulema melanopus) model predicts larval development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Warmer conditions in southern Alberta and western Saskatchewan are predicted to result in more rapid development of cereal leaf beetle (CLB) populations in those regions than in southern Manitoba. CLB model output predicts that hatch should be nearly complete for southern Alberta and western Saskatchewan. First to third instar larvae are predicted to be present in these areas (Fig. 1). As a result of cooler conditions, the model predicts that egg development has been delayed in southern Manitoba; first instar and second instar larvae may be appearing this week (Fig. 2).

Figure 1. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Lethbridge AB as of June 12, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Winnipeg MB as of June 512 2022.

Access scouting tips for cereal leaf beetle or find more detailed information by accessing the Oulema melanopus page from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12894Predicted bertha armyworm development ( 2022 Week 6 )

Pupal development of bertha armyworm (BAW) is progressing across the prairies with the most rapid development occurring across southern and central regions of Alberta and western Saskatchewan (Fig. 1). Over the next week, adults should be emerging across Alberta, Saskatchewan and localized areas in southern Manitoba.

Figure 1. Predicted bertha armyworm (Mamestra configurata) pupal development (%) across the Canadian prairies as of June 12, 2022.

Use the images below (Fig. 2) to help identify moths from the by-catch that will be retained in the green phermone-baited unitraps.

Figure 2. Stages of bertha armyworm from egg (A), larva (B), pupa (C) to adult (D).
Photos: J. Williams (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada)

Refer to the PPMN Bertha armyworm monitoring protocol for help when performing in-field scouting or review the 2019 Insect of the Week which featured bertha armyworm and its doppelganger, the clover cutworm! 

Biological and monitoring information related to bertha armyworm in field crops is posted by the provinces of ManitobaSaskatchewanAlberta and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network. Also, refer to the bertha armyworm pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12906Predicted wheat midge development ( 2022 Week 6 )

Wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) overwinter as larval cocoons in the soil but soil moisture conditions in May and June largely determine whether or not the larva exits their cocoon to move to the soil surface to continue development (i.e., to pupate then emerge as a midge this season). Adequate rainfall promotes termination of diapause and movement of larvae to the soil surface where pupation occurs. Insufficient rainfall in May and June can result in delayed movement of larvae to the soil surface. Wheat midge emergence may be delayed or erratic if rainfall does not exceed 20-30 mm during May. The Olfert et al. (2020) model indicated that dry conditions may result in:
a. Delayed adult emergence and oviposition
b. Reduced numbers of adults and eggs

Compared to last week, the wheat midge model indicates that the development of larval populations has advanced considerably across the eastern prairies and Peace River region. Normal to above-normal rain in Manitoba, eastern Saskatchewan and the Peace River region should be sufficient to promote the movement of wheat midge larvae to the soil surface (Fig. 1). Insufficient rainfall across central Alberta and western Saskatchewan will limit the development of larval populations that are in the soil.

Wheat midge simulations suggest that greater than 60 % of the larval population has moved to the soil surface in some areas of the prairies. Larval populations should begin to transition to the pupal stage over the next seven days. Current development for eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba is similar to long-term average rates.

Figure 1. Percent of wheat midge larval population (Sitodiplosis mosellana) that has moved to the soil surface across western Canada, as of June 12, 2022.

Risk estimates, based on meteorological inputs, were used to assess the impact of weather on wheat midge development and potential population growth potential (Fig. 2). Wheat midge risk is greatest in areas that have received normal to above-normal rainfall. As of June 12, 2022, model output indicates that potential risk is greatest across eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Risk in these areas is predicted to be similar to long-term average risk.

Figure 2. Predicted risk for wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) outbreaks across the Canadian prairies as of June 12, 2022.

Information related to wheat midge biology and monitoring can be accessed by linking to your provincial fact sheet (Saskatchewan Agriculture or Alberta Agriculture & Forestry).  Alberta Agriculture and Forestry has a YouTube video describing in-field monitoring for wheat midge.  

Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Wheat midge pages extracted from the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and Field Guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12862Provincial insect pest report links ( 2022 Week 6 )

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so link to their information:

MANITOBA’S Crop Pest Updates for 2022 are up and running! Access a PDF copy of the June 15, 2022 issue here. Bookmark their Crop Pest Update Index to readily access these reports and also bookmark their insect pest homepage to access fact sheets and more!
Flea beetles, cutworms and grasshopper nymphs in MB – Review the above June 15 issue to find greater details but the summary reads as, “Flea beetles levels are at quite high levels in many areas. Some growers have applied up to three insecticide applications for flea beetles, and there has been some reseeding. Some fields of small grains and sunflowers have been sprayed for cutworms. Hatch of the potential pest species of grasshoppers is occurring; some control has occurred in the Central region.”
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for MB – “So far, diamondback moth has been found in 29 traps.” Read the report on Page 5 of the June 15, 2022 issue OR review a more detailed summary of cumulative trap counts from 48 sites deployed across the province.
Armyworm pheromone trap monitoring is underway in MB – “So far, counts have generally been quite low, with armyworm moths only being caught in 6 traps.” Read the report on Page 6of the June 15, 2022 issue.

SASKATCHEWAN’S Crop Production News for 2022 is up and running! Access the online Issue #2 (June 2022) here and find updates linking to Canola Watch’s 8-steps for making the flea beetle spray decision, details for early season grasshoppers plus descriptions of invasive fruit insect surveys and wireworms as a potential cause of poor emergence, Bookmark their insect pest homepage to access important information! Crops Blog Posts are updated through the growing season.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for SK – Access this link to review counts summarized regionally. So far, “diamondback moth is arriving in Saskatchewan, but numbers are currently low”.

ALBERTA’S Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage links to insect survey maps, live feed maps, insect trap set-up videos, and more. There is also a Major Crops Insect webpage. The new webpage does not replace the Insect Pest Monitoring Network page. Remember, AAF’s Agri-News occasionally includes insect-related information. Twitter users can connect to #ABBugChat Wednesdays at 10:00 am.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map. So far, low numbers of diamondback moth have been intercepted across the province.
Cutworm live monitoring map for AB – Reports continue to come in so refer to the Live Map to review areas where cutworms are being found. So far, black army, pale western, and dingy cutworms have been reported. Use this online form to report cutworms in Alberta.

12860Crop report links ( 2022 Week 6 )

Click the provincial name below to link to online crop reports produced by:
Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development (or access a PDF copy of the June 14, 2022 report).
Saskatchewan Agriculture (or access a PDF copy of the June 7-13, 2022 report).
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (or access a PDF copy of the June 7, 2022 report).

The following crop reports are also available:
• The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces a Crop Progress Report (access a PDF copy of the June 13, 2022 edition).
• The USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (access a PDF copy of the June 14, 2022 edition).

12927Field heroes ( 2022 Week 6 )

The Field Heroes campaign continues to raise awareness of the role of beneficial insects in western Canadian crops.

Field Heroes resources include:

  1. Real Agriculture went live in 2022 with Season 3 of the Pest and Predators podcast series!
    NEW Episode 17 – Spiders and their amazing appetites Carol Frost (University of Alberta) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online June 14, 2022.
    • Episode 16 – Parasitoids prey on pests in pulses Nevin Rosaasen (Alberta Pulse Growers) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 31, 2022.
    • Episode 15 – Aphid milkshakes: Green lacewing’s fave Tyler Wist (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 17, 2022.
    • Episode 14 – Mistaken identities: Insect pest or beneficial? John Gavloski (Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 3, 2022.
    • Episode 13 – Weather effects: Predicting pest populations James Tansey (Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture), Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon), and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online April 19, 2022.
    • Review SEASON 2 of the Pest and Predators podcasts!
    • Review SEASON 1 of the Pest and Predators podcasts!
  2. The Pests and Predators Field Guide is filled with helpful images for quick insect identification and plenty of tips to manage the pests AND natural enemies in your fields. Claim your free copy at http://fieldheroes.ca/fieldguide/ or download a free copy to arm your in-field scouting efforts!
  3. Review the Sweep-net Video Series including:
    How to sweep a field. Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.
    What’s in my sweep-net? Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.
    Why use a sweep-net? Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.

Follow @FieldHeroes!

12853Previous posts ( 2022 Week 6 )

As the growing season progresses, the various Weekly Update topics move on and off the priority list for in-field scouting but they should be kept at hand to support season-long monitoring. Click to review these earlier 2022 Posts (organized alphabetically):
2021 Risk and forecast maps
Crop protection guides (Wk02)
Cutworms (Wk02)
European corn borer – Canadian standardized assessment 2.0 (Wk02)
Field heroes (Wk04)
Field guides – New webpage to access (Wk02)
Flea beetles (Wk01; IOTW)
iNaturalist.ca (Wk02)
Invasive insect species – Early detection (Wk02)
Scouting charts – canola and flax (Wk03)
Ticks and Lyme disease (Wk02)
Wind trajectory reports released in 2022
Wireworms – New field guide (Wk02)

12754Released June 10, 2022 ( 2022 Week 5 )

This week includes…..

• Weather synopsis
• Predicted grasshopper development
• Predicted alfalfa weevil development
• Predicted cereal leaf beetle development
• Predicted bertha armyworm development
• Predicted wheat midge development
• Weekly wind trajectory report
• Field heroes NEW Pest & Predator podcast links
• Provincial entomologist updates
• Links to crop reports
• Previous posts
….and catch Monday’s Insect of the Week for Week 5 – it’s the sugarbeet wireworm, Limonius californicus!

Wishing everyone good weather!

To receive free Weekly Updates automatically, please subscribe to the website!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

12756Weather synopsis ( 2022 Week 5 )

TEMPERATURE: The 2022 growing season has been cooler than normal, particularly in Manitoba. This past week (May 30 – June 5, 2022) average daily temperatures were similar to the previous week. The average temperature across the prairies was 1 °C cooler than normal (Fig. 1). Temperatures were warmest in Alberta and coolest in Manitoba.

Figure 1. Seven-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 30-June 5, 2022.

Average 30-day temperatures (May 7 – June 5, 2022) were warmest in southern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan (Fig. 2). The average temperature across the prairies was similar to long-term average values. Temperature anomalies (difference between observed and climate normals) over the past 30 days indicate that temperatures across southern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta were cooler than average (Fig. 3).

Figure 2. 30-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 7-June 5, 2022.
Figure 3. 30-day average temperature anomaly (°C difference from climate normals) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 7-June 5, 2022.

The growing season (April 1 – June 5, 2022) has been cooler in Manitoba than in Saskatchewan and Alberta (Fig. 4; Table 1). The average growing season temperature for the prairies has been 1.5 °C cooler than climate normal values.

Figure 4. Growing season average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to June 5, 2022.

PRECIPITATION: Rainfall has been well below normal for Alberta and western Saskatchewan while rainfall amounts have been well above normal for eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba in 2022. Seven-day cumulative rainfall ranged between 0 and 62 mm with the highest rainfall amounts occurring across Manitoba (Fig. 5). This week southwestern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta received 10-20 mm of rain.

Figure 5. Seven-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 30-June 5, 2022.

Rain (30-day accumulation) amounts have been well above average across the eastern prairies, particularly southeastern Manitoba; rain amounts have been well below normal in Alberta and western Saskatchewan (Figs. 6 and 7).

Figure 6. 30-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies the past 30 days (May 29-June 5, 2022).
Figure 7. Growing season cumulative rain anomaly (% if climate normals) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 7-June 5, 2022.

Growing season rainfall for April 1 – June 5, 2022, continues to be greatest across Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan; conditions have been well below normal across most of Saskatchewan and Alberta (Fig. 8; Table 1).

Figure 8. Growing season cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to June 5, 2022.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-June 6, 2022) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (May 31-June 6, 2022), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < -4 to >8 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <6 to >24 °C. Some areas of the prairies hit warmer temperatures with a slight bump in the number of sites experiencing days at or above 25 °C across the prairies – a maximum of 4 days. Access these maps and more using the AAFC Maps of Historic Agroclimate Conditions interface.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be accessed at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network. The AAFC Canadian Drought Monitor also provides geospatial maps updated monthly.

12780Predicted grasshopper development ( 2022 Week 5 )

The grasshopper (Acrididae: Melanoplus sanguinipes) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest. Review the historical grasshopper maps based on late-summer adult in-field counts performed across the prairies.

Model simulations were used to estimate percent grasshopper egg development and hatch as of June 5, 2022. Recent warmer temperatures in Saskatchewan and Alberta have resulted in increased rates of grasshopper development. In contrast, cooler/wetter conditions across eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba have resulted in delayed development. Last week, average embryological development was 73%.

This week, average egg development is predicted to be 76% and is similar to the long-term development rate (Fig. 1). Hatch is progressing across southern and central regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan (Fig. 2). This week grasshoppers (1-3rd instars) were abundant at specific locations across west-central Saskatchewan. Some fields were showing signs of grasshopper feeding.

Figure 1. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development (%) across the Canadian prairies as of June 5, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) hatch (%) across the Canadian prairies as of June 5, 2022.

Risk estimates, based on meteorological inputs, were used to assess the impact of weather on potential grasshopper development and population growth potential (Fig. 3). A bioclimate simulation model was developed to assess how climatic factors influence occurrence and relative abundance. Potential risk is based on weekly growth index values. Grasshopper risk is greatest in areas that are warmer and drier than normal. As of June 5, 2022, model output indicates that potential risk is greatest across eastern Alberta and western Saskatchewan. Cooler/wetter conditions in eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba are predicted to reduce potential risk.

Hatch is progressing across southern Alberta and western Saskatchewan (Fig. 3). Last week, grasshopper hatchlings were collected in an area between Saskatoon and Kindersley. Southern Alberta and western Saskatchewan have received the least amount of rain during the growing season. Grasshopper risk can be greater when conditions are warm and dry.

Figure 3. Predicted risk for the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) across the Canadian prairies as of June 5, 2022.

Grasshopper Scouting Tips:
Review grasshopper diversity and photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting from egg hatch and onwards.
● Access the PPMN’s Grasshopper Monitoring Protocol as a guide to help implement in-field monitoring.
● Review grasshopper lifecycle, damage and scouting and economic thresholds to support sound management decisions enabling the preservation of beneficial arthropods and mitigation of economic losses.

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12791Predicted alfalfa weevil development ( 2022 Week 5 )

The alfalfa weevil (AAW) (Curculionidae: Hypera postica) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Model simulations for alfalfa weevil (AAW) indicate the appearance of first and second instar larvae should be occurring across the prairies. Development in southern Manitoba (Fig. 1) is slower than development in southern Alberta (Fig. 2). Development is similar to long-term average values.

Figure 1. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Winnipeg MB as of June 5, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Medicine Hat AB as of June 5, 2022.

Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Alfalfa Weevil Page extracted from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12797Predicted cereal leaf beetle development ( 2022 Week 5 )

The cereal leaf beetle (CLB) (Chysomelidae: Oulema melanopus) model predicts larval development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Warmer conditions in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan are predicted to result in more rapid development of cereal leaf beetle (CLB) populations compared to southern Manitoba. CLB model output suggests that the hatch should be nearly complete for southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. First and second instar are predicted to be present in these areas (Fig. 1). As a result of cooler conditions, egg development is predicted to be delayed in southern Manitoba (Fig. 2). First instar larvae should begin to occur by the end of this week in Manitoba.

Figure 1. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Lethbridge AB as of June 5, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Brandon MB as of June 5, 2022.

Access scouting tips for cereal leaf beetle or find more detailed information by accessing the Oulema melanopus page from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12799Predicted bertha armyworm development ( 2022 Week 5 )

Compared to average development, bertha armyworm (BAW) pupal development in 2022 continues to be delayed for the Peace River region, Manitoba and southern and eastern regions of Saskatchewan (Fig. 1). Pupal development across southern and central Alberta and Saskatchewan is similar to long-term average values. Development in this region is 60-75% complete.

We suggest that BAW pheromone traps be placed in fields when pupal development is 75-80% to ensure that traps are in place prior to emergence of adults. Based on current runs, it is advisable that traps for Alberta and Saskatchewan be placed in fields by the end of this week (June 6-10). Traps should be put out in Manitoba and the Peace River region next week.

Figure 1. Predicted bertha armyworm (Mamestra configurata) pupal development (%) across the Canadian prairies as of June 5, 2022.

Refer to the PPMN Bertha armyworm monitoring protocol for help when performing in-field scouting or eview the 2019 Insect of the Week which featured bertha armyworm and its doppelganger, the clover cutworm! 

Biological and monitoring information related to bertha armyworm in field crops is posted by the provinces of ManitobaSaskatchewanAlberta and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network. Also, refer to the bertha armyworm pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12812Predicted wheat midge development ( 2022 Week 5 )

Wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) overwinter as larval cocoons in the soil. Soil moisture conditions in May and June can have significant impacts on wheat midge emergence. Adequate rainfall promotes termination of diapause and movement of larvae to the soil surface where pupation occurs. Insufficient rainfall in May and June can result in delayed movement of larvae to the soil surface. Elliott et al. (2009) reported that wheat midge emergence was delayed or erratic if rainfall did not exceed 20-30 mm during May. Olfert et al. (2016) ran model simulations to demonstrate how rainfall impacts wheat midge population density. The Olfert et al. (2020) model indicated that dry conditions may result in:
a. Delayed adult emergence and oviposition
b. Reduced numbers of adults and eggs

As of June 5, 2022, normal to above normal rainfall in Manitoba, eastern Saskatchewan and the British Columbia Peace River region should be sufficient to promote the movement of wheat midge larvae to the soil surface this year (Fig. 1). Warmer temperatures in central Manitoba are expected to advance larval development over the next seven days. Current development for eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba is similar to long-term average rates.

Figure 1. Percent of wheat midge larval population (Sitodiplosis mosellana) that has moved to the soil surface across western Canada, as of June 5, 2022.

Information related to wheat midge biology and monitoring can be accessed by linking to your provincial fact sheet (Saskatchewan Agriculture or Alberta Agriculture & Forestry).  Alberta Agriculture and Forestry has a YouTube video describing in-field monitoring for wheat midge.  

Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Wheat midge pages extracted from the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and Field Guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12752Provincial insect pest report links ( 2022 Week 5 )

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so link to their information:

MANITOBA’S Crop Pest Updates for 2022 are up and running! Access a PDF copy of the June 8, 2022 issue here. Bookmark their Crop Pest Update Index to readily access these reports and also bookmark their insect pest homepage to access fact sheets and more!
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for MB – “So far, diamondback moth has been found in 25 traps. Levels are generally very low, with the exception that some moderate counts have occurred in the Eastern and Central region, particularly over the past few weeks.” Read the report on Page 7 of the June 8, 2022 issue OR review a more detailed summary of cumulative trap counts from 38 sites deployed across the province.
Armyworm pheromone trap monitoring is underway in MB – “So far, counts have generally been quite low, with armyworm moths only being caught in 6 traps.” Read the report on Page 7-8 of the June 8, 2022 issue.

SASKATCHEWAN’S Crop Production News for 2022 is up and running! Access the online Issue #1 for May 24-30, 2022 here. Bookmark their insect pest homepage to access important information! Crops Blog Posts are updated through the growing season.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for SK – Access this link to review counts summarized regionally. So far, “diamondback moth is arriving in Saskatchewan, but numbers are currently low”.

ALBERTA’S Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage links to insect survey maps, live feed maps, insect trap set-up videos, and more. There is also a Major Crops Insect webpage. The new webpage does not replace the Insect Pest Monitoring Network page. Remember, AAF’s Agri-News occasionally includes insect-related information. Twitter users can connect to #ABBugChat Wednesdays at 10:00 am.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map. So far, low numbers of diamondback moth have been intercepted across the province.
Cutworm live monitoring map for AB – Reports are starting to come in so refer to the Live Map to review areas where cutworms are being found. So far, black army and pale western cutworms have been reported. Use this online form to report cutworms in Alberta.

12750Crop report links ( 2022 Week 5 )

Click the provincial name below to link to online crop reports produced by:
Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development (or access a PDF copy of the June 7, 2022 report).
Saskatchewan Agriculture (or access a PDF copy of the May 31-June 6, 2022 report).
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (or access a PDF copy of the May 31, 2022 report).

The following crop reports are also available:
• The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces a Crop Progress Report (access a PDF copy of the June 6, 2022 edition).
• The USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (access a PDF copy of the June 7, 2022 edition).

12748Previous posts ( 2022 Week 5 )

As the growing season progresses, the various Weekly Update topics move on and off the priority list for in-field scouting but they should be kept at hand to support season-long monitoring. Click to review these earlier 2022 Posts (organized alphabetically):
2021 Risk and forecast maps
Crop protection guides (Wk02)
Cutworms (Wk02)
European corn borer – Canadian standardized assessment 2.0 (Wk02)
Field heroes (Wk04)
Field guides – New webpage to access (Wk02)
Flea beetles (Wk01; IOTW)
iNaturalist.ca (Wk02)
Invasive insect species – Early detection (Wk02)
Scouting charts – canola and flax (Wk03)
Ticks and Lyme disease (Wk02)
Wind trajectory reports released in 2022
Wireworms – New field guide (Wk02)

12711Released June 3, 2022 ( 2022 Week 4 )

This week includes…..

• Weather synopsis
• Predicted grasshopper development
• Predicted alfalfa weevil development
• Predicted cereal leaf beetle development
• Predicted bertha armyworm development
• Weekly wind trajectory report
• Field heroes NEW Pest & Predator podcast links
• Provincial entomologist updates
• Links to crop reports
• Previous posts
….and catch Monday’s Insect of the Week for Week 4 – it’s the destructive wireworm, Selatosomus destructor!

Wishing everyone good weather!

To receive free Weekly Updates automatically, please subscribe to the website!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

12625Weather synopsis ( 2022 Week 4 )

TEMPERATURE: Since April 1, the 2022 growing season has been cooler than normal, particularly across Manitoba. Conditions continue to be dry across Alberta and western Saskatchewan while rainfall amounts have been well above normal for eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This past week (May 23-29, 2022) average daily temperatures were significantly warmer than last week. The average temperature across the prairies was 1C warmer than normal (Fig. 1). Temperatures were warmest in an area extending from Saskatoon to Winnipeg.

Figure 1. Seven-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 23-29, 2022.

Weekly temperatures continue to be cooler in the Peace River region. Average 30-day temperatures (April 30-May 29, 2022) were similar to climate normal values (Figs. 2 and 4). Temperatures were warmer than normal across most of Alberta and western Saskatchewan. The growing season (April 1-May 29, 2022) has been cooler than average (Fig. 3; Table 1).

Figure 2. 30-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 30 to May 29, 2022.
Figure 3. Growing season average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to May 29, 2022.
Figure 4. Growing season average temperature anomaly (°C difference from climate normals) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1-May 29, 2022.
Table 1. Growing season temperature and rainfall summary for specific locations across the Canadian prairies (April 1- May 29, 2022).

PRECIPITATION: Seven-day cumulative rainfall ranged between 0 and 67 mm with the highest rainfall amounts occurring across western Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan (Fig. 5). Conditions continue to be dry across western Saskatchewan and most of Alberta with rainfall amounts that were generally 5 mm or less for the period of May 23-29.

Figure 5. Seven-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 23-29, 2022.

Rain (30-day accumulation) amounts have been well above average across the eastern prairies, particularly southeastern Manitoba; rain amounts have been below normal in Alberta and western Saskatchewan (Figs. 6 and 8).

Figure 6. 30-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies the past 30 days (April 30 to May 29, 2022).

Growing season rainfall for April 1-May 29, 2022 continues to be greatest across Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan yet conditions have been well below normal across most of western Saskatchewan and Alberta (Fig. 7; Table 1).

Figure 7. Growing season cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to May 29, 2022.
Figure 8. Growing season cumulative rain anomaly (% if climate normals) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1-May 29, 2022.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-May 31, 2022) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (May 17-23, 2022), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < -5 to >6 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <14 to >26 °C. The cooler-than-average temperatures are reflected by the number of days at or above 25 °C that have occurred across the prairies – a maximum of 4 days in only a handful of locations so far. Access these maps and more using the AAFC Maps of Historic Agroclimate Conditions interface.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be accessed at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network. The AAFC Canadian Drought Monitor also provides geospatial maps updated monthly.

12647Predicted grasshopper development ( 2022 Week 4 )

The grasshopper (Acrididae: Melanoplus sanguinipes) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest. Review the historical grasshopper maps based on late-summer adult in-field counts performed across the prairies.

Model simulations were used to estimate percent grasshopper embryonic (egg) development as of May 29, 2022. Recent warmer temperatures have resulted in increased rates of egg development. Last week average development was 64 %. This week, average egg development is predicted to be 73 % with a range of 63-82 % (Fig. 1). In comparison, egg development based on long-term climate data is typically 70 % by this week of the growing season (Fig. 2). Cool conditions in Manitoba and the Peace River region continue to result in slower than average development rates in those areas. Across southern Alberta, the simulation indicates that egg development is similar to long-term average values.

Figure 1. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development (%) across the Canadian prairies as of May 29, 2022.
Figure 2. Long-term average predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development (%) across the Canadian prairies as of May 29 based on climate normals data.

Hatch is progressing across southern Alberta and western Saskatchewan (Fig. 3). Last week, grasshopper hatchlings were collected in an area between Saskatoon and Kindersley. Southern Alberta and western Saskatchewan have received the least amount of rain during the growing season. Grasshopper risk can be greater when conditions are warm and dry.

Figure 3. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) grasshopper hatch (%) across the Canadian prairies as of May 29, 2022.

Grasshopper Scouting Tips:
Review grasshopper diversity and photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting from egg hatch and onwards.
● Access the PPMN’s Grasshopper Monitoring Protocol as a guide to help implement in-field monitoring.
● Review grasshopper lifecycle, damage and scouting and economic thresholds to support sound management decisions enabling the preservation of beneficial arthropods and mitigation of economic losses.

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12653Predicted alfalfa weevil development ( 2022 Week 4 )

The alfalfa weevil (AAW) (Curculionidae: Hypera postica) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Model simulations for alfalfa weevil (AAW) indicate initial hatch should be occurring across southern and central regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan. First and second instar larvae are predicted to appear in alfalfa fields near Medicine Hat.

The following graphs indicate, based on potential number of eggs, that development is marginally faster near Vauxhall, Alberta (Fig. 1), compared to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Fig. 2). Development is similar to long-term average values. The model predicts that first and second instar larval populations may peak over the next 10 days near these two locations.

Figure 1. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Vauxhall AB as of May 29, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Saskatoon SK as of May 29, 2022.

Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Alfalfa Weevil Page extracted from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12660Predicted cereal leaf beetle development ( 2022 Week 4 )

The cereal leaf beetle (CLB) (Chysomelidae: Oulema melanopus) model predicts larval development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Warmer conditions in southern Alberta and southwest Saskatchewan are expected to have resulted in more rapid development of CLB populations in those areas than in southern Manitoba. The model output suggests that CLB hatch should be occurring across southern Alberta and Saskatchewan (Figs. 1 and 2). As a result of cooler conditions, egg development is predicted to be delayed in southern Manitoba (Fig. 3). The simulation predicts that second instar larvae may occur next week in southern Alberta and then 7-10 days later across southern Manitoba.

Figure 1. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Lethbridge AB as of May 29, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Maple Creek SK as of May 29, 2022.
Figure 3. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Brandon MB as of May 29, 2022.

Access scouting tips for cereal leaf beetle or find more detailed information by accessing the Oulema melanopus page from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12663Predicted bertha armyworm development ( 2022 Week 4 )

When considering average versus in-season pupal development, the current 2022 development of overwintered BAW pupae is expected to be significantly delayed for the Peace River region, Manitoba, and southern and eastern regions of Saskatchewan (Fig. 1). Though somewhat delayed, development of BAW pupae in southern and central Alberta and western Saskatchewan will be similar to average.

We recommend BAW pheromone traps be placed in fields when pupal development is 75-80 % to ensure traps are deployed in advance of the emergence of adults. The weather forecast predicts normal temperatures for the next week. This should advance BAW development with rates becoming similar to long-term average values. Based on current runs, it is advisable that Alberta and Saskatchewan traps be placed in fields by the end of next week (June 6-10). Traps in MB and the Peace River region should be put out one (Manitoba) or two (Peace River region) weeks later.

Figure 1. Predicted bertha armyworm (Mamestra configurata) pupal development (%) across the Canadian prairies as of May 29, 2022.

Refer to the PPMN Bertha armyworm monitoring protocol for help when performing in-field scouting or eview the 2019 Insect of the Week which featured bertha armyworm and its doppelganger, the clover cutworm! 

Biological and monitoring information related to bertha armyworm in field crops is posted by the provinces of ManitobaSaskatchewanAlberta and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network. Also, refer to the bertha armyworm pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12704Field heroes ( 2022 Week 4 )

The Field Heroes campaign continues to raise awareness of the role of beneficial insects in western Canadian crops.

Field Heroes resources include:

  1. Real Agriculture went live in 2022 with Season 3 of the Pest and Predators podcast series!
    • NEW Episode 16 – Parasitoids prey on pests in pulses Nevin Rosaasen (Alberta Pulse Growers) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 31, 2022.
    • NEW Episode 15 – Aphid milkshakes: Green lacewing’s fave Tyler Wist (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 17, 2022.
    • NEW Episode 14 – Mistaken identities: Insect pest or beneficial? John Gavloski (Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 3, 2022.
    • NEW Episode 13 – Weather effects: Predicting pest populations James Tansey (Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture), Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon), and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online April 19, 2022.
    • Review SEASON 2 of the Pest and Predators podcasts!
    • Review SEASON 1 of the Pest and Predators podcasts!
  2. The Pests and Predators Field Guide is filled with helpful images for quick insect identification and plenty of tips to manage the pests AND natural enemies in your fields. Claim your free copy at http://fieldheroes.ca/fieldguide/ or download a free copy to arm your in-field scouting efforts!
  3. Review the Sweep-net Video Series including:
    How to sweep a field. Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.
    What’s in my sweep-net? Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.
    Why use a sweep-net? Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.

Follow @FieldHeroes!

12686Provincial insect pest report links ( 2022 Week 4 )

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so link to their information:

MANITOBA’S Crop Pest Updates for 2022 are up and running! Access a PDF copy of the June 1, 2022 issue here. Bookmark their Crop Pest Update Index to readily access these reports and also bookmark their insect pest homepage to access fact sheets and more!
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for MB – “So far, diamondback moth has been found in 24 traps. Levels are generally very low, with the exception that some moderate counts have occurred in the Eastern region, particularly over the past two weeks. The highest cumulative trap count so far is 50 from a trap near Hadashville in the Eastern region” Review page 4 of the above report for greater detail and regional counts.

SASKATCHEWAN’S Crop Production News for 2022 is up and running! Access the online Issue #1 for May 24-30, 2022 here. Bookmark their insect pest homepage to access important information! Crops Blog Posts are updated through the growing season.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for SK – Access this link to review counts summarized regionally. So far, “diamondback moth is arriving in Saskatchewan, but numbers are currently low”.

ALBERTA’S Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage links to insect survey maps, live feed maps, insect trap set-up videos, and more. There is also a Major Crops Insect webpage. The new webpage does not replace the Insect Pest Monitoring Network page. Remember, AAF’s Agri-News occasionally includes insect-related information. Twitter users can connect to #ABBugChat Wednesdays at 10:00 am.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map. So far, low numbers of diamondback moth have been intercepted across the province.
Cutworm live monitoring map for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map. So far, no cutworms have been reported on the live map.

12693Crop report links ( 2022 Week 4 )

Click the provincial name below to link to online crop reports produced by:
Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development (subscribe to receive OR access a PDF copy of the May 31, 2022 report).
Saskatchewan Agriculture (or access a PDF copy of the May 24-30, 2022 report).
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (or access a PDF copy of the May 24, 2022 report).

The following crop reports are also available:
• The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces a Crop Progress Report (access a PDF copy of the May 31, 2022 edition).
• The USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (access a PDF copy of the June 1, 2022 edition).

12683Previous posts ( 2022 Week 4 )

As the growing season progresses, the various Weekly Update topics move on and off the priority list for in-field scouting but they should be kept at hand to support season-long monitoring. Click to review these earlier 2022 Posts (organized alphabetically):
2021 Risk and forecast maps
Crop protection guides (Wk02)
Cutworms (Wk02)
European corn borer – Canadian standardized assessment 2.0 (Wk02)
Field heroes (Wk02)
Field guides – New webpage to access (Wk02)
Flea beetles (Wk01; IOTW)
iNaturalist.ca (Wk02)
Invasive insect species – Early detection (Wk02)
Scouting charts – canola and flax (Wk03)
Ticks and Lyme disease (Wk02)
Wireworms – New field guide (Wk02)

12579Released May 27, 2022 ( 2022 Week 3 )

This week….

The weather report is a bit longer than usual owing to unusual conditions summarized broadly as cool and wet in the east, cool and dry in the west, and cool and wet in the Peace River region! This all has an impact on the progression of insect development as well as crop growth.

Catch Monday’s Insect of the Week for Week 3- it’s the most common wireworm, Hypnoidus bicolor!

Wishing everyone good weather!

To receive free Weekly Updates automatically, please subscribe to the website!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

12535Weather synopsis ( 2022 Week 3 )

TEMPERATURE: Since April 1, the 2022 growing season has been cooler than normal, particularly across Manitoba. Conditions continue to be dry across Alberta and western Saskatchewan while rainfall amounts have been well above normal for eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This past week (May 16-22, 2022), the average temperature across the prairies was 2 °C cooler than normal (Fig. 1). Temperatures were warmest in an area extending from Regina to Lethbridge and north to Edmonton.

Figure 1. Seven-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 16-22, 2022.

The average 30-day temperature (April 23-May 22, 2022) was 0.5 °C less than climate normal values (Fig. 2) and the growing season (April 1-May 22, 2022) has been 1.7 °C cooler than average (Fig. 3). Compared with climate normal values or average growing season temperatures, temperatures in 2022 have been 2-4 °C cooler than average across southeastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Fig. 4; Table 1).

Figure 2. 30-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 23 to May 22, 2022.
Figure 3. Growing season average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to May 22, 2022.
Figure 4. Growing season average temperature anomaly (°C difference from climate normals) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1-May 22, 2022.
Table 1. Growing season temperature and rainfall summary for specific locations across the Canadian prairies (April 1- May 22, 2022).

PRECIPITATION: Seven-day cumulative rainfall ranged between 0 and 54 mm with highest rainfall amounts occurring across Manitoba and the Parkland region of Saskatchewan (Fig. 5).

Figure 5. Seven-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 16-22, 2022.

Western Saskatchewan and most of Alberta have received little or no rain over the past seven days. Rain (30-day accumulation) amounts have been well above average across the eastern prairies, particularly southeastern Manitoba; rain amounts have been minimal in Alberta and western Saskatchewan (Fig. 6).

Figure 6. 30-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies the past 30 days (April 23 to May 22, 2022).

Growing season rainfall for April 1-May 22, 2022 has been greatest across Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan; precipitation has been well below normal across most of Saskatchewan and Alberta (Figs. 7 and 8; Table 1).

Figure 7. Growing season cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 to May 22, 2022.
Figure 8. Growing season cumulative rain anomaly (% if climate normals) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1-May 22, 2022.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-May 23, 2022) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (May 17-23, 2022), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < -6 to >0 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <12 to >24 °C. Access these maps and more using the AAFC Maps of Historic Agroclimate Conditions interface.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be accessed at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network. The AAFC Canadian Drought Monitor also provides geospatial maps updated monthly.

12557Predicted grasshopper development ( 2022 Week 3 )

The grasshopper (Acrididae: Melanoplus sanguinipes) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest. Review the historical grasshopper maps based on late-summer adult in-field counts performed across the prairies.

Model simulations were used to estimate percent grasshopper embryonic (egg) development as of May 22, 2022. Egg development ranges between 55 and 75% across most of the prairies (average=64%) (Fig. 1). Based on climate normals data, long term average development should be 64% (Fig. 2). Cool conditions in Manitoba and the Peace River region continue to result in slower than average development rates. Across southern Alberta, the simulation indicates that egg development is similar to average values. This region has had the least amount of rain during the growing season.

Grasshopper risk can be greater when conditions are warm and dry. Initial hatch is predicted to have begun near Medicine Hat and Brooks Alberta.

Figure 1. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development across the Canadian prairies as of May 22, 2022.
Figure 2. Long-term average predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development across the Canadian prairies as of May 22 based on climate normals data.

Grasshopper Scouting Tips:
Review grasshopper diversity and photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting from egg hatch and onwards.
● Access the PPMN’s Grasshopper Monitoring Protocol as a guide to help implement in-field monitoring.
● Review grasshopper lifecycle, damage and scouting and economic thresholds to support sound management decisions enabling the preservation of beneficial arthropods and mitigation of economic losses.

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12561Predicted alfalfa weevil development ( 2022 Week 3 )

The alfalfa weevil (AAW) (Curculionidae: Hypera postica) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Model simulations for alfalfa weevil (AAW) indicate that oviposition should be well underway across the prairies. The following graphs indicate, based on potential number of eggs, that development is marginally slower near Lethbridge, Alberta (Fig. 1) than Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Fig. 2). The model predicts that hatch should begin next week.

Figure 1. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Lethbridge AB as of May 22, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Saskatoon SK as of May 22, 2022.

Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Alfalfa Weevil Page extracted from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12565Predicted cereal leaf beetle development ( 2022 Week 3 )

The cereal leaf beetle (CLB) (Chysomelidae: Oulema melanopus) model predicts larval development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Cereal leaf beetle (CLB) model output suggests that oviposition is underway across the southern prairies. The following graphs provide a comparison of development for Lethbridge, Alberta (Fig. 1) and Brandon, Manitoba (Fig. 2). Warmer conditions in southern Alberta are predicted to result in more rapid development of CLB populations than for southern Manitoba. The simulation predicts that first instar larvae may occur next week in southern Alberta and 7-10 days later across southern Manitoba.

Figure 1. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Lethbridge AB as of May 22, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Brandon MB as of May 22, 2022.

Access scouting tips for cereal leaf beetle or find more detailed information by accessing the Oulema melanopus page from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12591Provincial insect pest report links ( 2022 Week 3 )

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so link to their information:

MANITOBA’S Crop Pest Updates for 2022 are up and running! Access a PDF copy of the May 25, 2022 issue here. Bookmark their Crop Pest Update Index to readily access these reports and also bookmark their insect pest homepage to access fact sheets and more!
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for MB – “So far, diamondback moth has only been found in 14 traps.” Review page 5 of the above report for greater detail.

SASKATCHEWAN’S Crop Production News is coming soon. Bookmark their insect pest homepage to access important information! Also access Crops Blog Posts encouraging flea beetle scouting to protect newly seeded stands of canola (May 2022) and an overview of insect populations in 2021 field crops and 2022 prospects (Apr 2022).

ALBERTA’S Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage links to insect survey maps, live feed maps, insect trap set-up videos, and more. There is also a Major Crops Insect webpage. The new webpage does not replace the Insect Pest Monitoring Network page. Remember, AAF’s Agri-News occasionally includes insect-related information. Twitter users can connect to #ABBugChat Wednesdays at 10:00 am.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map.
Cutworm live monitoring map for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map.

12584Crop report links ( 2022 Week 3 )

Click the provincial name below to link to online crop reports produced by:
Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development (subscribe to receive OR access a PDF copy of the May 24, 2022 report).
Saskatchewan Agriculture (or access a PDF copy of the May 17-23, 2022 report).
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (or access a PDF copy of the May 17, 2022 report).

The following crop reports are also available:
• The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces a Crop Progress Report (access a PDF copy of the May 23, 2022 edition).
• The USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (access a PDF copy of the May 24, 2022 edition).

12569Previous posts ( 2022 Week 3 )

As the growing season progresses, the various Weekly Update topics move on and off the priority list for in-field scouting but they should be kept at hand to support season-long monitoring. Click to review these earlier 2022 Posts (organized alphabetically):
2021 Risk and forecast maps
Crop protection guides (Wk02)
Cutworms (Wk02)
European corn borer – Canadian standardized assessment 2.0 (Wk02)
Field heroes (Wk02)
Field guides – New webpage to access (Wk02)
Flea beetles (Wk01; IOTW)
iNaturalist.ca (Wk02)
Invasive insect species – Early detection (Wk02)
Scouting charts – canola and flax (Wk03)
Ticks and Lyme disease (Wk02)
Wireworms – New field guide (Wk02; IOTW)

12501Released May 20, 2022 ( 2022 Week 2 )

This week….

Catch Monday’s Insect of the Week for Week 2- it’s the NEW Wireworm Field Guide!

NEW for this growing season – the website has been updated to create a Field Guides page linking to free, downloadable, AND searchable PDF copies of some of the key field guides used to support in-field insect monitoring in field crops on the Canadian prairies.

Review the historical Risk Maps for our most economically important insect pests of field crops on the Canadian prairies. These prairie-wide geospatial maps offer insight into potential risk and help growers prioritize their scouting lists.

Remember, insect Monitoring Protocols containing helpful insect pest biology, how and when to target in-field scouting, and even thresholds to help support in-field management decisions are all available for review or download.

Wishing everyone good weather!

To receive free Weekly Updates automatically, please subscribe to the website!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

12396Weather synopsis ( 2022 Week 2 )

TEMPERATURE: Since April 1, the 2022 growing season has been marginally cooler than normal. Conditions continue to be dry across Alberta and western Saskatchewan while rainfall amounts have been well above normal for eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This past week (May 9-16, 2022), the average temperature across the prairies was 0.5 °C cooler than normal (Fig. 1). Temperatures were warmest across southern Manitoba. The average 30-day temperature (April 16-May 15, 2022) was 1.5 °C less than climate normal values (click to view Fig. 2) and the growing season (April 1-May15, 2022) has been 1.8 °C cooler than average (click to view Fig. 3). The growing season and 30-day temperatures have been coolest in Manitoba (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3).

Figure 1. Seven-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 9-15, 2022.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-May 15, 2022) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (May 10-16, 2022), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < -7 to >2 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <12 to >24 °C. Even at this early point in the growing season, a few areas in Alberta and Saskatchewan have experienced a few days >25 °C (view map). Access these maps and more using the AAFC Maps of Historic Agroclimate Conditions interface.

PRECIPITATION: Average seven-day cumulative rainfall ranged between 0 and 76 mm with the highest rainfall amounts occurring across eastern Saskatchewan and western Manitoba (Fig. 4). Western Saskatchewan and most of Alberta have received little or no rain over the past seven days. Rain accumulation over the past 30 days has been well above average across the eastern prairies, particularly in southeastern Manitoba (click to view Fig. 5). Growing season rainfall for April 1-May 15, 2022, has been greatest across Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan. Conditions have been drier across most of Saskatchewan and Alberta (click to view Fig. 6).

Figure 4. Seven-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 9-15, 2022.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be accessed at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network. The AAFC Canadian Drought Monitor also provides geospatial maps updated monthly.

12477Cutworms ( 2022 Week 2 )

Cutworm scouting spans April to late June across the Canadian prairies! Scout fields that are “slow” to emerge, are missing rows, include wilting or yellowing plants, have bare patches, or appear highly attractive to birds – these are areas warranting a closer look.  Plan to follow up by walking these areas either very early or late in the day when some cutworm species (or climbing cutworms) move above-ground to feed.  Start to dig below the soil surface (1-5 cm deep) near the base of symptomatic plants and also any healthy plants immediately adjacent to missing rows or wilting or clipped plants.  Some cutworms feed by remaining just below the soil surface, clipping then pulling the plant below as they munch away! If the plant is well-established (e.g., perennial grass or legume), check within the crown in addition to the adjacent soil.  The culprits could be cutworms, wireworms, or more!

Important: Several species of cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can be present in fields.  They range in colour from shiny opaque, to tan, to brownish-red with chevron patterning.  A field guide is available to help growers scout and manage the various species of cutworms that can appear in field crops grown on the Canadian prairies.  Cutworm Pest of Crops is available free in either English or French! Download a searchable PDF copy to access helpful diagnostic photos plus a table showing which larvae are active at different points in the growing season!

Other vital resources to scout and manage cutworms include:

For anyone on the Canadian prairies, Manitoba Agriculture and Rural Development’s Cutworms in Field Crops fact sheet includes action and economic thresholds for cutworms in several crops, important biological information, and great cutworm photos to support in-field scouting.

For Albertans….. If you find cutworms, please consider using the Alberta Insect Pest Monitoring Network’s “2022 Cutworm Reporting Tool” then view the live 2022 cutworm map updated daily. Review the live map to see where cutworms are appearing then prioritize in-field scouting accordingly.

Cutworms were featured as 2021’s first Insect of the Week. Follow the links to access IOTW’s descriptions of armydarksideddingyglassypale western and redbacked cutworms.

● The Prairie Pest Monitoring Network has cutworm biology, plant host range, and monitoring information available.

● The Canola Council of Canada’s Canola Encyclopedia also has cutworm information posted.

12451Predicted grasshopper development ( 2022 Week 2 )

The grasshopper (Acrididae: Melanoplus sanguinipes) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest. Review the historical grasshopper maps based on late-summer adult in-field counts performed across the prairies.

Model simulations were used to estimate percent grasshopper embryonic (egg) development as of May 15, 2022. Model results indicate that egg development ranges between 55 and 71 % across most of the prairies (average=61 %) (Fig. 1). Based on climate normals data, long-term average egg development should be 60 % (Fig. 2). Cool conditions in Manitoba and the Peace River region have resulted in slower development rates. The simulation indicates that egg development is greater than average across southern Alberta (Fig. 2). This region has had the least amount of rain over the past 30 days.

Grasshopper risk can be greater when conditions are warm and dry. The initial hatch may begin this week near Medicine Hat and Brooks in Alberta.

Figure 1. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development across the Canadian prairies as of May 15, 2022.
Figure 2. Long-term average predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development across the Canadian prairies as of May 15 based on climate normals data.

Grasshopper Scouting Tips:
Review grasshopper diversity and photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting from egg hatch and onwards.
● Access the PPMN’s Grasshopper Monitoring Protocol as a guide to help implement in-field monitoring.
● Review grasshopper lifecycle, damage and scouting and economic thresholds to support sound management decisions enabling the preservation of beneficial arthropods and mitigation of economic losses.

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12453Predicted alfalfa weevil development ( 2022 Week 2 )

The alfalfa weevil (AAW) (Curculionidae: Hypera postica) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Model simulations for alfalfa weevil (AAW) indicate that oviposition should be well underway across the prairies as of May 15, 2022. The following graphs indicate, based on potential number of eggs, that development is slower near Lethbridge (Fig. 1) than Saskatoon (Fig. 2).

Development for both locations is ahead of average. The model predicts that eggs may begin hatching next week.

Figure 1. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Lethbridge AB as of May 15, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Saskatoon SK as of May 15, 2022.

Alfalfa growers are encouraged to check the Alfalfa Weevil Fact Sheet prepared by Dr. Julie Soroka (AAFC-Saskatoon).  Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Alfalfa Weevil Page extracted from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12448Predicted cereal leaf beetle development ( 2022 Week 2 )

The cereal leaf beetle (CLB) (Chysomelidae: Oulema melanopus) model predicts larval development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

Cereal leaf beetle (CLB) model output suggests that overwintered adults are active and that oviposition is underway across southern regions across the southern prairies. Compared to simulations for climate normals, development is generally slower than average. The following graphs provide a comparison of development for Swift Current (Fig. 1) and Winnipeg (Fig. 2). Warmer conditions in southwestern Saskatchewan are expected to have contributed to more rapid development of CLB populations whereas cool conditions have contributed to slower development of CLB populations in southern Manitoba.

The simulation predicts that first instar larvae may occur during the third or fourth week of May.

Figure 1. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Swift Current SK as of May 15, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Winnipeg MB as of May 15, 2022.

Access scouting tips for cereal leaf beetle or find more detailed information by accessing the Oulema melanopus page from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12480Field heroes ( 2022 Week 2 )

The Field Heroes campaign continues to raise awareness of the role of beneficial insects in western Canadian crops.

Field Heroes resources include:

  1. Real Agriculture went live in 2022 with Season 3 of the Pest and Predators podcast series!
    • NEW Episode 15 – Aphid milkshakes: Green lacewing’s fave Tyler Wist (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 2022.
    • NEW Episode 14 – Mistaken identities: Insect pest or beneficial? John Gavloski (Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 2022.
    • NEW Episode 13 – Weather effects: Predicting pest populations James Tansey (Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture), Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon), and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 2022.
    • Review SEASON 2 of the Pest and Predators podcasts!
    • Review SEASON 1 of the Pest and Predators podcasts!
  2. The Pests and Predators Field Guide is filled with helpful images for quick insect identification and plenty of tips to manage the pests AND natural enemies in your fields. Claim your free copy at http://fieldheroes.ca/fieldguide/ or download a free copy to arm your in-field scouting efforts!
  3. Review the Sweep-net Video Series including:
    How to sweep a field. Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.
    What’s in my sweep-net? Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.
    Why use a sweep-net? Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon). Published online 2020.

Follow @FieldHeroes!

12455Ticks and Lyme Disease ( 2022 Week 2 )

When scouting, avoid unwanted passengers – remember to watch for ticks at this time of year!  Blacklegged (deer) ticks can carry Lyme Disease.  Access information on how to remove and identify a tick made available by Health Canada.

Continued surveillance is important and enables tracking of Lyme disease incidence and risk. Follow the links to learn more and to submit ticks if you live in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, or Quebec.

Another option is the free eTick APP, a public platform for image-based identification and population monitoring of ticks in Canada. Both Google Play and iOS versions of the App enable users to upload tick photos for help with identification.

Public Health Agency of Canada’s 2018 infographic (published 2021; retrieved 2022May18 for downloading) summarizing Lyme disease surveillance in Canada is worth a quick scan (see image snip below).

Figure 1. Screenshot of Public Health Agency of Canada’s infographic summarizing Lyme disease surveillance in Canada (2018; retrieved 2022May18).

12428Canadian standardized assessment for European corn borer (2.0) ( 2022 Week 2 )

The European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis), can be an important pest of corn. Despite its name, ECB is actually a generalist feeder, having a wide range of hosts.

The recent confirmation of ECB resistance to Cry1F Bt corn in Nova Scotia has increased the need to monitor this pest across Canada. With so many new emerging crops being grown in Canada that are also hosts for ECB (e.g. hemp, cannabis, quinoa, hops, millet and others), there is no better time for us to look at this pest across the Canadian ag landscape.

European corn borer larva.
Photo: J. Smith, University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus.

To monitor for ECB nationwide, the Insect Surveillance Community of Practice of the Canadian Plant Health Council has developed a harmonized monitoring protocol for European corn borer across all hosts. The protocol can be used to report ECB eggs, larvae or damage in any host crop across Canada. Our goal is to better understand the distribution and abundance of ECB in Canada, detect significant infestations, capture observations on any hosts and determine if ECB is shifting to other emerging crops like hops, quinoa, millet, hemp, and others. This harmonized protocol has been designed to complement protocols that are already in use to make management decisions.

Whether you are scouting corn, quinoa, hemp, millet, potatoes, apples, or other crops susceptible to ECB, we encourage you to try the harmonized monitoring protocol and report the data from your field or research plots using the free Survey123 app (available for both desktop and mobile devices):

European Corn Borer Monitoring for All Host Crops: https://arcg.is/0TLWmS

You do not need a login in to use the survey. Simply download the Survey123 Field App and click on the third option “Continue without logging in”, once on the login screen. To see the French version, click on the button on the top right corner, once in the survey to switch from English to French. A hardcopy version to take out to the field before entering it into Survey123 is also available here in English and French.

Please feel free to contact Tracey Baute (OMAFRA), Meghan Vankosky (AAFC-Saskatoon), Tracy Hueppelsheuser (BC Ministry of Agriculture), James Tansey (Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture), John Gavloski (Manitoba Agriculture), Brigitte Duval (MAPAQ), Suqi Liu (PEI Department of Agriculture and Land) or Caitlin Congdon (Perennia, Nova Scotia) if you have questions about this initiative.

12413iNaturalist.ca ( 2022 Week 2 )

Looking for help online to identify unusual flora and fauna? Apps aplenty exist but consider iNaturalist.ca because there are underlying benefits!

iNaturalist.ca helps users identify terrestrial organisms by connecting to online “experts” able to identify and provide information to users but there’s an underlying secondary benefit: Researchers, institutions, and active research projects can set up Lists and access observations within iNaturalist.ca. This is citizen science in action!

“Every observation can contribute to biodiversity science, from the rarest butterfly to the most common backyard weed”, to quote from iNaturalist.ca’s webpage.

Here’s how Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) who are already using and accessing valuable data from this resource to aid in the early detection of invasive species.

What’s best – iNaturalist.ca OR iNaturalist.com? Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the team that focuses on the detection of invasive species generally recommends iNaturalist.ca because it allows Canadians better access to Canadian experts and Canadian data.

Is iNaturalist.ca worth using to identify unknown insects encountered in field crops? iNaturalist.ca is going to be the leader in early detections and is a fairly intuitive and usable tool for everyone. It’s not perfect for all organisms but works well for many. CFIA staff are actively monitoring it and, in the near future, CFIA hopes to set up an account that might allow users to flag observations for their team to see more rapidly.

How does CFIA mine iNaturalist and what is the value? CFIA uses a script through the Intauralist API to query for any mentions of our targeted list under the project here: Important Pest Species List for Canada – Lookout · iNaturalist. CFIA staff members receive a daily email of all the target list mentions (i.e., includes insects, plants, and mollusks). In order to increase early detections, CFIA’s also trying to retrieve data from comments such as when someone mentions a new record or new detection. At this point, only a few pathogens are listed in our pest lookout because many of CFIA’s regulated pests would need more than a picture (so we didn’t add them). CFIA staff believe iNaturalist.ca is a great tool for early detection because the number of observations is very large and growing like crazy AND they are geographically widespread.

The basic steps to get you going are:
◦ Create an account at iNaturalist.ca (https://inaturalist.ca/signup).
◦ Watch your Inbox for a basic how-to guide.
◦ Upload photos or videos (e.g., bird calls) to create an “Observation”.
◦ iNaturalist subscribers considered to be experts will help identify your observation.

12410Early detection of invasive insect species ( 2022 Week 2 )

Could be coming to a field near you….. Many of Canada’s economically important species of insect pests originated as invasive species that managed to relocate and establish self-sustaining populations. Over time, they become increasingly widespread and so frequently abundant that they are part of the annual list of species we monitor and attempt to manage.

Examples of invasive species existing presently throughout large areas of the Canadian prairies include wheat midge, cereal leaf beetle, cabbage seedpod weevil, pea leaf weevil, swede midge – in fact, the list of invasive species is far longer! Consider the impact of invasive species AND recognize that a growing list of species will likely affect field crops in Canada. Globalization, adaptation, and the development of new cultivars suited to Canada’s growing regions, climate change, plus many other factors will contribute to the reality: we can expect more invasive species to continue to arrive.

Where can you play a role??? Early detection and accurate identification are key steps involved in mitigating the risks associated with new invasive species. Many levels of government are active in the ongoing battle against invasive species. Even so, initial detections often arise from keen in-field scouting by producers or agrologists so access these resources to help identify the “that’s weird” or “I haven’t seen that before”. And be sure to thank the many entomologists – regional, provincial, federal, and some amazing amateurs PLUS the folks at Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) who ALL work to stand on guard for thee!

Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s (CFIA) main Plant Health section can be accessed here.

• More specifically, CFIA’s Plant Pests and Invasive Species information is accessible here.

• Did you know…. CFIA’s top field crop invasive species include anything falling under the List of Pests Regulated by Canada which is accessible here. Caveats are that (i) some species may be on the list (e.g., codling moth) that are not necessarily a high priority but remain to maintain regulatory policy or (ii) list may include species yet to be removed.

• Anyone can access diagnostic information for invasive species at CFIA’s Plant Pest Surveillance section accessible here.

HERE’S WHERE YOU CAN HELP – Experienced producers and agrologists make important discoveries every day! Keep Canadian agriculture strong and support the detection of invasive species when encountering unusual damage symptoms or unknown insect species. How and what to report plus 3 different pathways to submit your sightings are all described here.

12363When it comes to pesticides… ( 2022 Week 2 )

Crop Production Guides are posted to websites for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

Every year, these guides are updated with product information and so much more! Hard copies can be purchased via the above websites. Alternatively, the 2022 Crop Production Guides are available as a FREE downloadable PDF for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

A few other helpful tools to keep at your finger tips:

The Canadian Grain Commission has information to help you manage stored grain.  Read tips to prepare your bins to prevent insect infestations.  If there are insects in your grain, use their online diagnostic tools to help identify the problem species.  If pest species are confirmed, there are control options – read more to make the right choice for your grain storage system and your specific grain.

Remember to Keep It Clean so grains are prepared and protected for the market.  Learn more about preparing canola, cereals and pulses! They also have tools to manage pre-harvest intervals including a spray to swath calculator.

12497Provincial insect pest report links ( 2022 Week 2 )

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so link to their information:

MANITOBA’S Crop Pest Updates for 2022 coming soon. Be sure to bookmark their Crop Pest Update Index to readily access these reports! Bookmark their insect pest homepage to access fact sheets and more!

SASKATCHEWAN’S Crop Production News coming soon. Be sure to bookmark their insect pest homepage to access important information! Also access Crop Blog Posts recently encouraging flea beetle scouting to protect newly seeded stands of canola.

ALBERTA’S Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage links to insect survey maps, live feed maps, insect trap set-up videos, and more. There is also a Major Crops Insect webpage. The new webpage does not replace the Insect Pest Monitoring Network page. Remember, AAF’s Agri-News occasionally includes insect-related information. Twitter users can connect to #ABBugChat Wednesdays at 10:00 am.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map.
Cutworm live monitoring map for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map.

12488Crop report links ( 2022 Week 2 )

Click the provincial name below to link to online crop reports produced by:
Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development (subscribe to receive OR access a PDF copy of the May 17, 2022 report).
Saskatchewan Agriculture (or access a PDF copy of the May 10-16, 2022 report).
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (or access a PDF copy of the May 10, 2022 report).

The following crop reports are also available:
• The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces a Crop Progress Report (access a PDF copy of the May 16, 2022 edition).
• The USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (access a PDF copy of the May 17, 2022 edition).

12334Weekly Update ( 2022 Week 1 )

Week 1 for the 2022 growing season and welcome back!

Seeders AND the many field crop entomologists across the Canadian prairies are out and raring to go for another growing season! This week….

Please take a moment to review the historical Risk Maps for our most economically important insect pests of field crops on the Canadian prairies. These prairie-wide geospatial maps offer insight into potential risk and help growers prioritize their scouting lists.

Remember, insect Monitoring Protocols containing helpful insect pest biology, how and when to target in-field scouting, and even thresholds to help support in-field management decisions are all available for review or download.

NEW for this growing season – the website has been updated to create a Field Guides page linking to free, downloadable, AND searchable PDF copies of some of the key field guides used to support in-field insect monitoring in field crops on the Canadian prairies.

Be sure to catch this week’s earlier Insect of the Week for Week 1- it’s Flea beetles!

Wishing everyone good weather and let the insect scouting begin!

To receive free Weekly Updates automatically, please subscribe to the website!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

12314Weather synopsis ( 2022 Week 1 )

TEMPERATURE: Since April 1, the 2022 growing season has been cooler and wetter than normal. This past week (May 2-8, 2022), the average temperature across the prairies was 1.1 °C cooler than normal (Fig. 1). The average 30-day temperature (April 9-May 8, 2022) was 3 °C lower than climate normal values (Fig. 1). Temperatures have been coolest in Manitoba (Figs. 1, 2).

Figure 1. 30-day average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 9– May 8, 2022.
Figure 2. Seven-day average temperature (°C) across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 2-8, 2022.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-May 9, 2022) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (May 3-9, 2022), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < -12 to >0 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <10 to >25 °C. Even at this early point in the growing season, a few areas in Alberta and Saskatchewan have experienced 1-2 days >25 °C (view map). Access these maps and more using the AAFC Maps of Historic Agroclimate Conditions interface.

PRECIPITATION: Average seven-day cumulative rainfall ranged between 0 and 66 mm with the highest rainfall amounts occurring in the Peace River region of Alberta and British Columbia (Fig. 3). The remainder of the prairies received little or no rain. Rain (30-day accumulation) amounts have been well above average for most of the prairies (255 % of average). Rainfall for April 9-May 8, 2022 was greatest across Manitoba and conditions have been drier across most of Saskatchewan and Alberta (Fig. 4).

Figure 3. Seven-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of May 2-8, 2022.
Figure 4. 30-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 9-May 8, 2022.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be accessed at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network. The AAFC Canadian Drought Monitor also provides geospatial maps updated monthly.

12281Predicted alfalfa weevil development ( 2022 Week 1 )

The alfalfa weevil (AAW) (Curculionidae: Hypera postica) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

As of May 8, model simulations for alfalfa weevil (AAW) predict that oviposition is well underway across the prairies. The following graphs indicate, based on the potential number of eggs, that development is slower near Lethbridge (Fig. 1) than Saskatoon (Fig. 2). Development for both locations is ahead of that expected based on long-term averages. The model predicts that hatch may occur during the last week of May.

Figure 1. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Lethbridge AB as of May 8, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) populations near Saskatoon SK as of May 8, 2022.

Alfalfa growers are encouraged to check the Alfalfa Weevil Fact Sheet prepared by Dr. Julie Soroka (AAFC-Saskatoon).  Additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Alfalfa Weevil Page extracted from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12261Predicted cereal leaf beetle development ( 2022 Week 1 )

The cereal leaf beetle (CLB) (Chysomelidae: Oulema melanopus) model predicts larval development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest.

As of May 8, 2022, the model output suggests that overwintered adults are active and that oviposition is underway across the southern regions of Alberta and in southwestern western Saskatchewan. Compared to simulations for climate normals, development in 2022 is generally slower than average. The graphs provide a comparison of development for Lethbridge (Fig. 1) and Swift Current (Fig. 2).

Warmer conditions in southern Alberta are predicted to result in more rapid development of CLB populations in comparison to southern Saskatchewan. The simulation indicates that first instar larvae may occur during the third week of May.

Figure 1. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Lethbridge AB as of May 8, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted status of cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) populations near Swift Current SK as of May 8, 2022.

Access scouting tips for cereal leaf beetle or find more detailed information by accessing the Oulema melanopus page from the “Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada – Identification and management field guide” (2018; accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12289Predicted grasshopper development ( 2022 Week 1 )

The grasshopper (Acrididae: Melanoplus sanguinipes) model predicts development using biological parameters known for the pest species and environmental data observed across the Canadian prairies on a daily basis. Review lifecycle and damage information for this pest. Review the historical grasshopper maps based on late-summer adult in-field counts performed across the prairies.

As of May 8, 2022, the model simulation indicates that egg development is most advanced in southern Alberta (Fig. 1). Cool conditions in Manitoba have resulted in slower development rates. Egg development is expected to range from 50 and 65 % across most of the prairies (average = 59 %). Based on climate normals data, long-term average development should be 57 % (Fig. 2).

Figure 1. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development across the Canadian prairies as of May 8, 2022.
Figure 2. Predicted grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) embryological development across the Canadian prairies as of May 8 based on long-term average (climate normals) data.

Grasshopper Scouting Tips:
Review grasshopper diversity and photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting from egg hatch and onwards.
● Access the PPMN’s Grasshopper Monitoring Protocol as a guide to help implement in-field monitoring.
● Review grasshopper lifecycle, damage and scouting and economic thresholds to support sound management decisions enabling the preservation of beneficial arthropods and mitigation of economic losses.

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (2018) accessible as a free downloadable PDF in either English or French on our new Field Guides page.

12345Provincial insect pest report links ( 2022 Week 1 )

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so link to their information:

MANITOBA’S Crop Pest Updates for 2022 will be available soon. Be sure to bookmark their Crop Pest Update Index to readily access these reports! Bookmark their insect pest homepage to access fact sheets and more!

SASKATCHEWAN’S Crop Production News normally includes 7 issues released through the growing season. Be sure to bookmark their insect pest homepage to access important information!

ALBERTA’S Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage links to insect survey maps, live feed maps, insect trap set-up videos, and more. There is also a Major Crops Insect webpage. The new webpage does not replace the Insect Pest Monitoring Network page. Remember, AAF’s Agri-News occasionally includes insect-related information. Twitter users can connect to #ABBugChat Wednesdays at 10:00 am.
Diamondback moth pheromone trap monitoring update for AB – Cumulative counts arising from weekly data are available so refer to the Live Map.

12337Crop report links ( 2022 Week 1 )

Click the provincial name below to link to online crop reports produced by:
Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development (subscribe to receive OR access a PDF copy of the May 10, 2022 report).
Saskatchewan Agriculture (or access a PDF copy of the May 3-9, 2022 report).
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (or access a PDF copy of the May 3, 2022 report).

The following crop reports are also available:
• The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces a Crop Progress Report (access a PDF copy of the May 9, 2022 edition).
• The USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (access a PDF copy of the May 10, 2022 edition).

11941Weekly Update ( 2021 Week 16 )

Week 16 and this marks the final Weekly Update of the 2021 growing season! Watch the website in late February when 2022 forecast maps will begin to be released and the Weekly Update will return in May 2022. An even easier option is to subscribe to the website to receive updates automatically!

This week, please pay special attention to the Provincial Insect Pest Report section – provincially-led surveys continue for grasshoppers and wheat midge but also find links to permit land access and to help monitor in 2022! Once again, we thank the many folks who participated in insect monitoring in field crops grown across the prairies! We also thank the key individuals who worked to create the data and information presented within the Weekly Updates!

As swathers and combines continue to move across the prairies, we wish everyone good weather and a safe harvest! Be sure to catch the Insect of the Weekit’s the Japanese beetle!

Stay safe and good scouting to you!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

11943Weather synopsis ( 2021 Week 16 )

TEMPERATURE: This past week (August 9 – 15, 2021) the prairies continued to experience above-average temperatures and extremely dry conditions. Across the prairies, the average 30-day (July 17 – August 15, 2021) temperature was 1.5 °C warmer than climate normal values. The warmest temperatures were observed across the southern prairies (Fig. 1). A comparison of temperature anomalies (difference between average and observed temperatures) for this period indicated that southern Alberta and northeast Saskatchewan were approximately 3 °C warmer than normal (Fig. 2). Average temperatures around Peace River, Edmonton, and southern Manitoba were most similar to climate normal values.

Figure 1. 30-day average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of July 17– August 15, 2021.
Figure 2. Temperature anomalies (difference from climate normal values) for average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of July 17 – August 15, 2021.

The 2021 growing season (April 1 – August 15, 2021) has been 1.5 °C warmer than average (Fig. 3). Growing season temperature anomalies indicate that Parkland and Peace River regions have been 1.5-2.5 °C warmer than normal (Fig. 4).

Figure 3. Growing season average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 – August 15, 2021.
Figure 4. Temperature anomalies (difference from climate normal values) for average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 – August 15, 2021.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-August 9, 2021) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (August 12-18, 2021), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < -1 to >11 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <20 to >37 °C. Check the number of days of >25 °C or >30 °C across the Canadian prairies (April 1-August 11, 2021). Access these maps and more using the AAFC Drought Watch webpage interface.

PRECIPITATION: Weekly (August 9-15, 2021) rainfall amounts were generally less than 5 mm. Rainfall amounts for the period of July 17 – August 15 (30-day accumulation) have been well below average with most of the prairies reporting rain amounts that were less than 40 mm (Fig. 5). Growing season precipitation has been below average across most of the prairies with cumulative rain amounts that have been less than 100 mm. A region extending from Lethbridge to northeastern Saskatchewan has had less than 100 mm of rain (Fig. 6).

Figure 5. 30-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of July 17 – August 15, 2021
Figure 6. Growing season cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 – August 15, 2021.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be access at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network.

11955Predicted diamondback moth development ( 2021 Week 16 )

Diamondback moths (DBM; Plutella xylostella) are a migratory invasive species. Model runs based on climate normals data indicate that most DBM populations should be in the third generation with second-generation DBM predicted for areas within the Peace River region and localized areas of fourth-generation DBM occurring across southern Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Fig. 1). Model simulations based on current growing season weather indicate that, compared to climate normal results, there has been an additional generation (fourth) of non-migrant adults that are currently occurring across the Canadian prairies (Fig. 2).

Figure 1. Predicted number of non-migrant generations of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) that are expected to have occurred across the Canadian prairies as of August 15 (based on climate normals data).
Figure 2. Predicted number of non-migrant generations of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) expected to occur across the Canadian prairies as of August 15, 2021.

Monitoring: Remove plants in an area measuring 0.1 m² (about 12″ square), beat them onto a clean surface and count the number of larvae (Fig. 3) dislodged from the plant. Repeat this procedure at least in five locations in the field to get an accurate count.

Figure 3. Diamondback larva measuring ~8mm long.
Note brown head capsule and forked appearance of prolegs on posterior.

The economic threshold for diamondback moth in canola at the advanced pod stage is 20 to 30 larvae/ 0.1  (approximately 2-3 larvae per plant).  Economic thresholds for canola or mustard in the early flowering stage are not available. However, insecticide applications are likely required at larval densities of 10 to 15 larvae/ 0.1 m² (approximately 1-2 larvae per plant).

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Figure 4. Diamondback moth pupa within silken cocoon.
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is DBM_adult_AAFC-1.png
Figure 5. Diamondback moth.

Biological and monitoring information for DBM (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the diamondback moth pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (accessible in either English-enhanced or French-enhanced versions).

11957Predicted grasshopper development ( 2021 Week 16 )

Model simulations were used to estimate grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) development and oviposition as of August 15, 2021. Above-average temperatures during June, July, and early August continue to result in a noticeable increase in the rates of oviposition.

Grasshoppers generally begin to lay eggs in early August. Model simulations for 2021 predicted that oviposition was expected to begin in mid-July. Earlier oviposition can result in above-average production of eggs and increased overwintering survival of eggs. This may result in potential increased grasshopper risk for the 2022 growing season. Model runs for the 2021 growing season (April 1 – August 15) indicated that oviposition should now be occurring across most of the prairies and is predicted to be greatest in southeastern Alberta (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) oviposition index across the Canadian prairies as of August 8, 2021. Higher values indicate greater potential for oviposition.

Grasshopper Scouting Steps:
Review grasshopper diversity and scouting information including photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting and accurately apply thresholds for grasshoppers.
● Measure off a distance of 50 m on the level road surface and mark both starting and finishing points using markers or specific posts on the field margin.
● Start at one end in either the field or the roadside and walk toward the other end of the 50 m, making some disturbance with your feet to encourage any grasshoppers to jump.
● Grasshoppers that jump/fly through the field of view within a one-meter width in front of the observer are counted.
● A meter stick can be carried as a visual tool to give perspective for a one-meter width. However, after a few stops, one can often visualize the necessary width and a meter stick may not be required. Also, a hand-held counter can be useful in counting while the observer counts off the required distance.
● At the endpoint, the total number of grasshoppers is divided by 50 to give an average per meter. For 100 m, repeat this procedure.
Compare counts to the following damage levels associated with pest species of grasshoppers:
0-2 per m² – None to very light damage
2-4 per m² – Very light damage
4-8 per m² – Light damage
8-12 per m² – Action threshold in cereals and canola
12-24 per m² – Severe damage
24 per m² – Very severe damage
For lentils at flowering and pod stages, >2 per m² will cause yield loss.
For flax at boll stages, >2 per m² will cause yield loss.
● More practically, the following thresholds are offered but, in the event of additional crop stress (e.g., drought), the use of “may be required” versus “control usually required” requires careful consideration:

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (accessible in either English-enhanced or French-enhanced versions).

11949West nile virus risk ( 2021 Week 16 )

The following is offered to help predict when Culex tarsalis, the vector for West Nile Virus, will begin to fly across the Canadian prairies. By this week, all regions across the prairies have now accumulated sufficient degree-day heat units for Culex tarsalis to develop to adult stages, if present in the region (Fig. 1).

As of August 15, 2021 (Fig. 1), C. tarsalis development has now reached the point that adults are predicted to be flying across all areas of the Canadian prairies. Outdoor enthusiasts falling within areas highlighted red OR in areas that have accumulated >400 degree-days for C. tarsalis to emerge should wear DEET to protect against WNV!

Figure 1. Predicted development of Culex tarsalis across the Canadian prairies (as of August 15, 2021).

The Public Health Agency of Canada posts information related to West Nile Virus in Canada and also tracks West Nile Virus through human, mosquito, bird and horse surveillance. Link here to access their most current weekly update (reporting date August 13, 2021; retrieved August 19, 2021). The screenshot below (retrieved 19Aug2021) serves as a reference and reports one human case of WNV, two positive wild birds, and positive mosquito pools in Ontario.

Bird surveillance continues to be an important way to detect and monitor West Nile Virus. The Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) works with governmental agencies (i.e., provincial laboratories and the National Microbiology Laboratory) and other organizations to report the occurrence of WNV. Dead birds retrieved from areas of higher risk of West Nile Virus are tested for the virus. A screenshot of the latest reporting results posted by Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative is below (reporting date August 18, 2021; retrieved 19Aug2021) which reports 3 positive birds collected in both Ontario and Quebec.

Anyone keen to identify mosquitoes will enjoy this pictorial key for both larvae and adults which is posted on the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) website but sadly lacks a formal citation other than “MOSQUITOES: CHARACTERISTICS OF ANOPHELINES AND CULICINES prepared by Kent S. Littig and Chester J. Stojanovich” and includes Pages 134-150. The proper citation may be Stojanovich, Chester J. & Louisiana Mosquito Control Association. (1982). Mosquito control training manual. pp 152.

10615Early detection of invasive insect species ( 2021 Week 16 )

Many of Canada’s economically important species of insect pests originated as invasive species that managed to relocate and establish self-sustaining populations. Over time, they became increasingly widespread and so frequently abundant that they became part of the annual list of species we monitor and attempt to manage.

Examples of invasive species that now exist as part of our field crop landscape include wheat midge, cereal leaf beetle, cabbage seedpod weevil, pea leaf weevil, swede midge – in fact, the list of invasive species is far longer! It’s important to consider the impact of invasive species AND recognize that a growing list of species will likely affect field crops in Canada. Globalization, adaptation, and the development of new cultivars suited to Canada’s growing regions, climate change, plus many other factors will contribute to the reality: we can expect more invasive species to continue to arrive.

Where can you play a role??? Early detection and accurate identification are key steps involved in mitigating the risks associated with new invasive species. Many levels of government are active in the ongoing battle against invasive species. Even so, initial detections often arise from keen in-field scouting by producers or agrologists so access these resources to help identify the “that’s weird” or “I haven’t seen that before”. And be sure to thank the many entomologists – regional, provincial, federal, and some amazing amateurs PLUS the folks at Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) who ALL work to stand on guard for thee!

Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s (CFIA) main Plant Health section can be accessed here.

• More specifically, CFIA’s Plant Pests and Invasive Species information is accessible here.

• Did you know…. CFIA’s top field crop invasive species include anything falling under the List of Pests Regulated by Canada which is accessible here. Caveats are that (i) some species may be on the list (e.g., codling moth) that are not necessarily a high priority but remain to maintain regulatory policy or (ii) list may include species yet to be removed.

• Anyone can access diagnostic information for invasive species at CFIA’s Plant Pest Surveillance section accessible here.

HERE’S WHERE YOU CAN HELP – Experienced producers and agrologists make important discoveries every day! Keep Canadian agriculture strong and support the detection of invasive species using this important information and the three options when encountering unusual damage symptoms or unknown insect species:

Important details to be ready to report: Be ready to include details to make a “report” – Sightings need to be validated so providing as much detail as possible will help the expert confirm identifications and relocate the site, if the issue demands urgent attention.
◦ Date of observation
◦ Nearest town and province
◦ Latitude x longitude values
◦ Host plant(s)
◦ Good photo(s) – lateral, dorsal, damage symptoms, host plant, etc., with some sort of size reference is ideal
◦ Chronological photos (i.e., that tell the story of detection and how and when symptoms or specimen came to your attention)
◦ A specimen may be needed by your provincial entomologist or CFIA

Option 1: Contact your provincial entomologist to confirm identifications and details – they are able to help and historically have acted to triage reports then direct relevant information to CFIA counterparts:
◦ Manitoba (John.Gavloski@gov.mb.ca )
◦ Saskatchewan (james.tansey@gov.sk.ca)
◦ Alberta (shelley.barkley@gov.ab.ca)

Option 2: Alternatively, reports can be sent directly using one of the following paths:
◦ Using CFIA’s Report A Pest website form
◦ Contact a local CFIA office
◦ Or contact CFIA’S general surveillance account email at cfia.surveillance-surveillance.acia@canada.ca
◦ Or contact CFIA’s Survey Biologist for the Western Area (david.holden@canada.ca)

Option 3: Another alternative is to consider documenting your query using iNaturalist.ca (read more here). The basic steps involved are:
◦ Create an account at iNaturalist.ca (https://inaturalist.ca/signup)
◦ Watch your Inbox for a basic how-to guide.
◦ Upload photos or videos (e.g., bird calls) to create an “Observation”
◦ iNaturalist subscribers considered to be experts will help identify your observation.

11999An APP with a difference – iNaturalist.ca ( 2021 Week 16 )

Smartphones and their evolving photographic capacity continue to enhance our ability to learn about the environment around us. Millions of APPs have been developed to harness information and agriculture continues to benefit.

iNaturalist.ca is beneficial to download. It helps users identify terrestrial organisms by connecting to “experts” who help identify and provide information to users but there’s an underlying secondary benefit: Researchers, institutions, and active research projects can set up Lists and access observations within iNaturalist. As the homepage says, “Every observation can contribute to biodiversity science, from the rarest butterfly to the most common backyard weed.” We reached out to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) who are already using and accessing valuable data from this resource.

What’s best – iNaturalist.ca OR iNaturalist.com? Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the team that focuses on the detection of invasive species generally recommends iNaturalist.ca because it allows Canadians better access to Canadian experts and Canadian data.

Is iNaturalist.ca worth using to identify unknown insects encountered in field crops? iNaturalist.ca is going to be the leader in early detections and is a fairly intuitive and usable tool for everyone. It’s not perfect for all organisms but works well for many. CFIA staff are actively monitoring it and, in the near future, CFIA hopes to set up an account that might allow users to flag observations for their team to see more rapidly.

How does CFIA mine iNaturalist and what is the value? CFIA uses a script through the Intauralist API to query for any mentions of our targeted list under the project here: Important Pest Species List for Canada – Lookout · iNaturalist. CFIA staff members receive a daily email of all the target list mentions (i.e., includes insects, plants, and mollusks). In order to increase early detections, CFIA’s also trying to retrieve data from comments such as when someone mentions a new record or new detection. At this point, only a few pathogens are listed in our pest lookout because many of CFIA’s regulated pests would need more than a picture (so we didn’t add them). CFIA staff believe iNaturalist.ca is a great tool for early detection because the number of observations is very large and growing like crazy AND they are geographically widespread.

The basic steps involved are:
◦ Create an account at iNaturalist.ca (https://inaturalist.ca/signup).
◦ Watch your Inbox for a basic how-to guide.
◦ Upload photos or videos (e.g., bird calls) to create an “Observation”.
◦ iNaturalist subscribers considered to be experts will help identify your observation.

11947Crop Metrics Application ( 2021 Week 16 )

Reminder – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has released the Canadian Crop Metrics application. This product contains useful and interesting information about the current status of crops grown across Canada. The application also presents data for a number of pest insects including bertha armyworm, diamondback moth, grasshoppers and wheat midge.

Read over the synopsis of the Canadian Crop Metrics application to gain a sense of what the resource has to offer and how to optimize access. It allows users to look at specific regions and generate reports, graphs, and tables to compare current conditions to historical conditions for 11 different crop types. Weather data is updated regularly and yield estimates are updated monthly from July to October. Forecasts are made at the beginning of the months of July, August and September for all crops, and an additional forecast is made for corn and soybeans (late season crops) at the beginning of October. Forecasts are jointly produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Statistics Canada using historical yield, climate and satellite data as inputs.

Screenshots of the application are below for reference. Get started here!

11945Provincial insect pest report links ( 2021 Week 16 )

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so link to their information:

MANITOBA’S Crop Pest Updates for 2021 are now available – access the August 11, 2021 report here. Be sure to bookmark their Crop Pest Update Index to readily access these reports! Bookmark their insect pest homepage to access fact sheets and more!
The late-season grasshopper survey is underway in Manitoba – Anyone interested can access the survey protocol posted here.

SASKATCHEWAN’S Crop Production News is available. Access Issue #5 online which includes information describing supporting pollinators in an agriculture habitat. Be sure to bookmark their insect pest homepage to access important information!
PLEASE participate in the fall wheat midge soil core survey by registering fields at the pest survey sign-up webpage! – Producers need to sign up to allow access to their land to help build the 2022 forecast map!
PLEASE volunteer to monitor bertha armyworm in 2022 by emailing pestsurveys@gov.sk.ca – Please state that you would “like to participate in the BAW survey”.

ALBERTA’S Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage links to insect survey maps, live feed maps, and insect trap set-up videos and more. There is also a Major Crops Insect webpage. The new webpage does not replace the Insect Pest Monitoring Network page. Remember, AAF’s Agri-News occasionally includes insect-related information or Twitter users can connect to #ABBugChat Wednesdays at 10:00 am (through the growing season).
Consider getting involved with annual insect surveying by signing up to allow access to your land– Producers who participate help build population maps of pest insects. Email shelley.barkley@gov.ab.ca to sign up for 2022!

11951Crop report links ( 2021 Week 16 )

Click the provincial name below to link to online crop reports produced by:
Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development (subscribe to receive OR access a PDF copy of the August 17, 2021 report; retrieved 19Aug2021).
Saskatchewan Agriculture (or access a PDF copy of the August 10-16, 2021 report; retrieved 19Aug2021).
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (or access a PDF copy of the August 10, 2021 report; retrieved 19Aug2021).

The following crop reports are also available:
• The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces a Crop Progress Report (access a PDF copy of the August 16, 2021 edition; retrieved 19Aug2021).
• The USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (access a PDF copy of the August 17, 2021 edition; retrieved 19Aug2021).

11953Previous posts ( 2021 Week 16 )

As the growing season progresses, the various Weekly Update topics move on and off the priority list for in-field scouting but they should be kept at hand to support season-long monitoring. Click to review these earlier 2021 Posts (organized alphabetically):
2020-2021 Risk and forecast maps
Alfalfa weevil – predicted development (Wk07)
Aphids in field crops (Wk09)
Bertha armyworm (Wk12)
Bertha armyworm – predicted development (Wk09)
Cabbage seedpod weevil monitoring (Wk09)
Calls for survey help (Wk14)
Cereal aphid manager APP (Wk07)
Cereal leaf beetle – predicted development (Wk07)
Crop protection guides (Wk03)
Cutworms (Wk02)
European corn borer – nation-wide monitoring project (Wk07)
Field heroes (Wk15)
Flea beetles (Wk02)
Flea beetles – predicted geographic distribution and abundance (Wk04)
Fuzzy white “eggs” on barley or wheat (Wk13)
Grasshopper diversity and scouting photos (Wk08)
Ladybird beetles (Wk03)
Lygus bug monitoring (Wk15)
Midges in canola (Wk11)
Monarch migration (Wk09)
Pea leaf weevil (Wk03)
Praire-wide survey of stored grain pests (Wk13)
Pre-Harvest Intervals (Wk15)
Scouting charts – canola and flax (Wk03)
Slugs and their parasites (Wk04)
Thrips in canola (Wk12)
Weather radar mapping interface (Wk06)
Wheat midge – predicted development (Wk08)
Wheat midge – predicted development (Wk15)
Wind trajectories for monitoring insect movement (Wk02)
Wind trajectories – weekly reports (Wk09)
Wireworms (Wk02)

11912Weekly Update ( 2021 Week 15 )

Week 15 and swathers and combines are now running across the prairies! Be sure to catch the Insect of the Weekit’s the mormon cricket!

Stay safe and good scouting to you!

Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please contact us so we can connect you to our information. Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

11874Weather synopsis ( 2021 Week 15 )

TEMPERATURE: This past week (August 2-8, 2021) the prairies continued to experience above-average temperatures and extremely dry conditions. The warmest temperatures were observed across southern and central regions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Fig. 1). Across the prairies, the average 30-day (July 10 – August 8, 2021) temperature was 2.5°C warmer than climate normal values (Fig. 2). The 2021 growing season (April 1 – August 8, 2021) has been 1.6 °C warmer than average (Fig. 3).

Figure 1. 7-day average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of August 2- 8, 2021.
Figure 2. 30-day average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of July 10 – August 8, 2021.
Figure 3. Growing season average temperature (°C) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 – August 8, 2021.

Growing degree day (GDD) maps for Base 5 ºC and Base 10 ºC (April 1-August 9, 2021) can be viewed by clicking the hyperlinks. Over the past 7 days (August 5-11, 2021), the lowest temperatures recorded across the Canadian prairies ranged from < 0 to >12 °C while the highest temperatures observed ranged from <22 to >34 °C. Check the number of days of >25 °C or >30 °C across the Canadian prairies (April 1-August 11, 2021). Access these maps and more using the AAFC Drought Watch webpage interface.

PRECIPITATION: Weekly (August 2-8, 2021) rainfall amounts were generally less than 5 mm (Fig. 4). Rainfall amounts for the period of July 10 – August 8 (30-day accumulation) have been well below average with most of the prairies receiving less than 40% of the average amount for this time period (Fig. 5). Growing season precipitation has been below average across most of the prairies. A region extending from Regina to the USA border is the only region reporting near-normal rainfall for the period of April 1 – August 8, 2021. A region extending from Lethbridge to northeastern Saskatchewan has had less than 100 mm of rain (Fig. 6) in 2021.

Figure 4. 7-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of August 2 – 8, 2021.
Figure 5. 30-day cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of July 10 – August 8, 2021
Figure 6. Growing season cumulative rainfall (mm) observed across the Canadian prairies for the period of April 1 – August 8, 2021.

The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Growers can bookmark the AAFC Current Conditions Maps for the growing season. Historical weather data can be access at the AAFC Drought Watch Historical website, Environment Canada’s Historical Data website, or your provincial weather network.

11932Lygus bug monitoring ( 2021 Week 15 )

On the Canadian prairies, lygus bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) are normally a complex of several native species usually including Lygus lineolaris, L. keltoni, L. borealis, L. elisus although several more species are distributed throughout Canada. The species of Lygus forming the “complex” can vary by host plant, by region or even seasonally.

Lygus bugs are polyphagous (i.e., feed on plants belonging to several Families of plants) and multivoltine (i.e., capable of producing multiple generations per year). Both the adult (Fig. 1) and five nymphal instar stages (Fig. 2) are a sucking insect that focuses feeding activities on developing buds, pods and seeds. Adults overwinter in northern climates. The economic threshold for Lygus in canola is applied at late flower and early pod stages.  

Recent research in Alberta has resulted in a revision to the thresholds recommended for the management of Lygus in canola. Under ideal growing conditions (i.e., ample moisture) a threshold of 20-30 lygus per 10 sweeps is recommended. Under dry conditions, a lower threshold may be used, however, because drought limits yield potential in canola, growers should be cautious if considering the use of foliar-applied insecticide at lygus densities below the established threshold of 20-30 per 10 sweeps. In drought-affected fields that still support near-average yield potential, a lower threshold of ~20 lygus per 10 sweeps may be appropriate for stressed canola. Even if the current value of canola remains high (e.g., >$19.00 per bu), control at densities of <10 lygus per 10 sweeps is not likely to be economical. Research indicates that lygus numbers below 10 per 10 sweeps (one per sweep) can on occasion increase yield in good growing conditions – likely through plant compensation for a small amount of feeding stress.

Figure 1. Adult Lygus lineolaris (5-6 mm long) (photo: AAFC-Saskatoon).
Figure 2. Fifth instar lygus bug nymph (3-4 mm long) (photo: AAFC-Saskatoon).

Damage: Lygus bugs have piercing-sucking mouthparts and physically damage the plant by puncturing the tissue and sucking plant juices. The plants also react to the toxic saliva that the insects inject when they feed. Lygus bug infestations can cause alfalfa to have short stem internodes, excessive branching, and small, distorted leaves. In canola, lygus bugs feed on buds and blossoms and cause them to drop. They also puncture seed pods and feed on the developing seeds causing them to turn brown and shrivel.

Scouting tips to keep in mind: Begin monitoring canola when it bolts and continue until seeds within the pods are firm. Since adults can move into canola from alfalfa, check lygus bug numbers in canola when nearby alfalfa crops are cut.

Sample the crop for lygus bugs on a sunny day when the temperature is above 20 °C and the crop canopy is dry. With a standard insect net (38 cm diameter), take ten 180 ° sweeps. Count the number of lygus bugs in the net. Sampling becomes more representative IF repeated at multiple spots within a field so sweep in at least 10 locations within a field to estimate the density of lygus bugs.

How to tell them apart: The 2019 Insect of the Week’s doppelganger for Wk 15 was lygus bug versus the alfalfa plant bug while Wk 16 featured lygus bug nymphs vs. aphids!  Both posts include tips to discern the difference between when doing in-field scouting!

Biological and monitoring information related to Lygus in field crops is posted by the provinces of Manitoba or Alberta fact sheets or the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network’s monitoring protocol.  Also refer to the Lygus pages within the new “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” – both English or French versions are available.

11901Predicted diamondback moth development ( 2021 Week 15 )

Diamondback moths (DBM; Plutella xylostella) are a migratory invasive species. The model, based on climate data, indicates most DBM populations should be in the third generation (Fig. 1). Model simulations to August 8, 2021, predict an additional generation for the current growing season PLUS a third and fourth generation of non-migrant adults are currently emerging across the Canadian prairies (Fig. 2).

Figure 1. Predicted number of non-migrant generations of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) expected to occur across the Canadian prairies as of August 8 (based on climate normals data).
Figure 2. Predicted number of non-migrant generations of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) expected to occur across the Canadian prairies as of August 8, 2021.

Monitoring: Remove plants in an area measuring 0.1 m² (about 12″ square), beat them onto a clean surface and count the number of larvae (Fig. 3) dislodged from the plant. Repeat this procedure at least in five locations in the field to get an accurate count.

Figure 3. Diamondback larva measuring ~8mm long.
Note brown head capsule and forked appearance of prolegs on posterior.

The economic threshold for diamondback moth in canola at the advanced pod stage is 20 to 30 larvae/ 0.1  (approximately 2-3 larvae per plant).  Economic thresholds for canola or mustard in the early flowering stage are not available. However, insecticide applications are likely required at larval densities of 10 to 15 larvae/ 0.1 m² (approximately 1-2 larvae per plant).

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is DBM_Pupa_AAFC-1.jpg
Figure 4. Diamondback moth pupa within silken cocoon.
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is DBM_adult_AAFC-1.png
Figure 5. Diamondback moth.

Biological and monitoring information for DBM (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the diamondback moth pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (accessible in either English-enhanced or French-enhanced versions).

11897Predicted grasshopper development ( 2021 Week 15 )

Model simulations were used to estimate grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) development as of August 8, 2021. Compared to average growing season temperatures, above-average temperatures during June, July, and early August continue to result in a noticeable increase in the rate of grasshopper development.

Oviposition generally begins in early August. Model simulations for 2021 predicted that oviposition was expected to begin in mid-July. Earlier oviposition can result in above-average production of eggs resulting in potential risk for the following growing season. Climate data suggests that, as of August 8, oviposition would be expected to occur across most of the southern prairies (Fig. 1). Model runs for the 2021 growing season (April 1 – August 8) predicted that oviposition should now be occurring across most of the prairies (Fig. 2).

Figure 1. Percent of grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) population in the egg stage across the Canadian prairies as of August 8 (based on climate normals data).
Figure 2. Percent of grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) population in the egg stage across the Canadian prairies as of August 8, 2021.

Grasshopper Scouting Steps:
Review grasshopper diversity and scouting information including photos of nymphs, adults, and non-grasshopper species to aid in-field scouting and accurately apply thresholds for grasshoppers.
● Measure off a distance of 50 m on the level road surface and mark both starting and finishing points using markers or specific posts on the field margin.
● Start at one end in either the field or the roadside and walk toward the other end of the 50 m, making some disturbance with your feet to encourage any grasshoppers to jump.
● Grasshoppers that jump/fly through the field of view within a one-meter width in front of the observer are counted.
● A meter stick can be carried as a visual tool to give perspective for a one-meter width. However, after a few stops, one can often visualize the necessary width and a meter stick may not be required. Also, a hand-held counter can be useful in counting while the observer counts off the required distance.
● At the endpoint, the total number of grasshoppers is divided by 50 to give an average per meter. For 100 m, repeat this procedure.
Compare counts to the following damage levels associated with pest species of grasshoppers:
0-2 per m² – None to very light damage
2-4 per m² – Very light damage
4-8 per m² – Light damage
8-12 per m² – Action threshold in cereals and canola
12-24 per m² – Severe damage
24 per m² – Very severe damage
For lentils at flowering and pod stages, >2 per m² will cause yield loss.
For flax at boll stages, >2 per m² will cause yield loss.
● More practically, the following thresholds are offered but, in the event of additional crop stress (e.g., drought), the use of “may be required” versus “control usually required” requires careful consideration:

Biological and monitoring information (including tips for scouting and economic thresholds) related to grasshoppers in field crops is posted by Manitoba Agriculture and Resource DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, the BC Ministry of Agriculture, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  Also, refer to the grasshopper pages within the “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and management field guide” (accessible in either English-enhanced or French-enhanced versions).

11907Predicted wheat midge development ( 2021 Week 15 )

Wheat midge model simulations to August 8, 2021, predict that wheat midge populations should be in one of two larval stages. Where wheat midge is present, most larvae (55 %) will be in wheat heads, feeding on developing kernels. Development of this stage is predicted to be greatest across eastern Saskatchewan. Larvae that have completed development in wheat heads will be dropping to the soil where they will transition to larval cocoons (44 % of the prairie population). The occurrence of larval cocoons should be greatest across northwestern Saskatchewan and eastern Alberta. This stage will overwinter in the soil.

Figure 1. Percent of the wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) larval population that is predicted to be in wheat heads as of August 8, 2021.
Figure 2. Percent of the wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) larval population that is predicted to be in the soil (larval cocoons) as of August 8, 2021.

Monitoring: The window for scouting and application of the economic threshold for wheat midge (i.e., during the synchrony between wheat anthesis and midge flight period) has now drawn to a close for 2021. 

Wheat midge was featured as the Insect of the Week in 2021 (for Wk07). Be sure to also review wheat midge and its doppelganger, the lauxanid fly, featured as the Insect of the Week in 2019 (for Wk11) – find descriptions and photos to help with in-field scouting!  Additionally, the differences between midges and parasitoid wasps were featured as the Insect of the Week in 2019 (for Wk12).  Remember – not all flying insects are mosquitoes nor are they pests! Many are important parasitoid wasps that actually regulate insect pest species in our field crops OR pollinators that perform valuable ecosystem services!

Information related to wheat midge biology and monitoring can be accessed by linking to your provincial fact sheet (Saskatchewan Agriculture or Alberta Agriculture & Forestry).  A review of wheat midge on the Canadian prairies was published by Elliott, Olfert, and Hartley in 2011.  

Alberta Agriculture and Forestry has a YouTube video describing in-field monitoring for wheat midge.  

More information about wheat midge can be found by accessing the pages from the new “Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and Field Guide”.  View ONLY the Wheat midge pages but remember the guide is available as a free downloadable document as both an English-enhanced or French-enhanced version.

11892Crop Metrics Application ( 2021 Week 15 )

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has released the Canadian Crop Metrics application. This product contains useful and interesting information about the current status of crops grown across Canada. The application also presents data for a number of pest insects including bertha armyworm, diamondback moth, grasshoppers and wheat midge.

Read over the synopsis of the Canadian Crop Metrics application to gain a sense of what the resource has to offer and how to optimize access. It allows users to look at specific regions and generate reports, graphs, and tables to compare current conditions to historical conditions for 11 different crop types. Weather data is updated regularly and yield estimates are updated monthly from July to October. Forecasts are made at the beginning of the months of July, August and September for all crops, and an additional forecast is made for corn and soybeans (late season crops) at the beginning of October. Forecasts are jointly produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Statistics Canada using historical yield, climate and satellite data as inputs.

Screenshots of the application are below for reference. Get started here!

11914West nile virus risk ( 2021 Week 15 )

The following is offered to help predict when Culex tarsalis, the vector for West Nile Virus, will begin to fly across the Canadian prairies. This week, regions most advanced in degree-day accumulations for Culex tarsalis are shown in Figure 1 but the unusual heat across the prairies greatly accelerated mosquito development!

As of August 8, 2021 (Fig. 1), C. tarsalis development has now reached the point that adults are predicted to be flying across the south of the prairies from Manitoba to Alberta. Outdoor enthusiasts falling within areas highlighted red (i.e., areas that have accumulated sufficient heat accumulation of >400 degree-days for C. tarsalis to emerge) should wear DEET to protect against WNV! Because of the continued high temperatures, areas highlighted yellow or orange in the map below (as of August 8) should also start to use DEET this week!

Figure 1. Predicted development of Culex tarsalis across the Canadian prairies (as of August 1, 2021).

The Public Health Agency of Canada posts information related to West Nile Virus in Canada and also tracks West Nile Virus through human, mosquito, bird and horse surveillance. Link here to access their most current weekly update (reporting date June 21, 2021; retrieved August12, 2021). The screenshot below (retrieved 12Aug2021) serves as a reference and reports one human case of WNV, a positive wild bird, and positive mosquito pools in Ontario.

Bird surveillance continues to be an important way to detect and monitor West Nile Virus. The Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) works with governmental agencies (i.e., provincial laboratories and the National Microbiology Laboratory) and other organizations to report the occurrence of WNV. Dead birds retrieved from areas of higher risk of West Nile Virus are tested for the virus. A screenshot of the latest reporting results posted by Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative is below (retrieved 12Aug2021).

Anyone keen to identify mosquitoes will enjoy this pictorial key for both larvae and adults which is posted on the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) website but sadly lacks a formal citation other than “MOSQUITOES: CHARACTERISTICS OF ANOPHELINES AND CULICINES prepared by Kent S. Littig and Chester J. Stojanovich” and includes Pages 134-150. The proper citation may be Stojanovich, Chester J. & Louisiana Mosquito Control Association. (1982). Mosquito control training manual. pp 152.

11379Field heroes ( 2021 Week 15 )

The Field Heroes campaign continues to raise awareness of the role of beneficial insects in western Canadian crops.

Two NEW Field Heroes resources for 2021 include:

  1. Real Agriculture went live in 2021 with Season 2 of the Pest and Predators podcast series!
    • NEW – Episode 12 – Get a jump on grasshoppers James Tansey (Saskatchewan Agriculture) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online July 6, 2021.
    • Episode 11 – Free farm labour John Gavloski (Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online June 15, 2021.
    • Episode 10 – Good bugs relocate for work Hector Carcamo(Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lethbridge) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online June 1, 2021.
    • Episode 9 – Secret agents in the stubble Jennifer Otani (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Beaverlodge) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 18, 2021.
    • Episode 8 – Good vs pea leaf weEVIL Meghan Vankosky (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online May 4, 2021.
    • Episode 7 – Powerful parasitoids: Better than fiction Tyler Wist (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Saskatoon) and Shaun Haney (RealAg). Published online April 20, 2021.
    • Review SEASON 1 of the Pest and Predators podcast series!
  2. The NEW Pests and Predators Field Guide is filled with helpful images for quick insect identification and plenty of tips to manage the pests AND natural enemies in your fields. Claim your free copy at http://fieldheroes.ca/fieldguide/ or download a free copy to arm your in-field scouting efforts!

Access ALL the Field Heroes links here and be sure to follow @FieldHeroes!