Cereal Aphid Manager

Aphids can cause significant damage to fields and increase crop losses but low densities in a grain field sometimes have little economic impact on production. This is especially true if the aphid’s natural enemies (beneficial insects) are present in the field because they can keep the aphids under control.

The Cereal Aphid Manager is an easy-to-use mobile app that helps farmers and crop advisors control aphid populations in wheat, barley, oat or rye. It is based on Dr. Tyler Wist’s (AAFC-Saskatoon) Dynamic Action Threshold model. The model treats the grain field as an ecosystem and takes into account many complex biological interactions including:

  • the number of aphids observed and how quickly they reproduce
  • the number of different natural enemies of aphids in the field and how many aphids they eat or parasitize per day
  • the lifecycles of aphids and their enemies taking into account developmental stages, egg laying behaviour, population growth rate, lifespan, etc.

Frequent in-field scouting, supported by the app’s dynamic threshold, allows growers to weigh the above factors and the app predicts what the aphid population will be in seven days and the best time to apply insecticide based on economic thresholds.

To learn more and to download, go to AAFC’s CAM webpage

Cereal Aphid Manager (CAM)

Reminder  and Congratulations!  The Cereal Aphid Management (CAM) Mobile Application Team was recognized with an Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Gold Harvest Award this month!  Team members included Ashraf Eid, Paul Faure, John Gavloski, François Jodoin, Elham Karimi, Eric Li, Jackson Macdonald, Nancy MacDonald, Owen Olfert, Chrystel Y. Olivier, Daniel Shen, Erl Svendsen, Gabriel Tobian, Tyler J. Wist.  

“The app is a culmination of innovative thinking, extensive research, and most importantly collaboration in order to design a tool that met the needs of the farming community. The team’s ability to work together and build this application will result in economic savings, a greener environment, and increased crop quality in the food production industry.”

The Cereal Aphid Manager is an easy-to-use mobile app that helps farmers and crop advisors control aphid populations in wheat, barley, oat or rye. It is based on Dr. Tyler Wist’s (AAFC-Saskatoon) innovative Dynamic Action Threshold model. The model treats the grain field as an ecosystem and takes into account many complex biological interactions including:

  • the number of aphids observed and how quickly they reproduce
  • the number of different natural enemies of aphids in the field and how many aphids they eat or parasitize per day
  • the lifecycles of aphids and their enemies taking into account developmental stages, egg laying behaviour, population growth rate, lifespan, etc.

By taking into consideration factors like these, the app predicts what the aphid population will be in seven days and the best time to apply insecticide based on economic thresholds.

Available in iOS and Android.

To learn more and to download, go to AAFC’s CAM webpage.

Note: Cereal aphids can blow up from the South at any time which cannot be predicted by the app. Therefore, farmers and crop advisors should regularly check fields during the growing season regardless of what Cereal Aphid Manager Mobile may recommend.

CAM Homepage
CAM monitoring report and recommendation
CAM icon

Cereal Aphid Manager (CAM)

Congratulations!  The Cereal Aphid Management (CAM) Mobile Application Team was recognized with an Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Gold Harvest Award this month!  Team members included Ashraf Eid, Paul Faure, John Gavloski, François Jodoin, Elham Karimi, Eric Li, Jackson Macdonald, Nancy MacDonald, Owen Olfert, Chrystel Y. Olivier, 

Daniel Shen, Erl Svendsen, Gabriel Tobian, Tyler J. Wist.

“The app is a culmination of innovative thinking, extensive research, and most importantly collaboration in order to design a tool that met the needs of the farming community. The team’s ability to work together and build this application will result in economic savings, a greener environment, and increased crop quality in the food production industry.”

The Cereal Aphid Manager is an easy-to-use mobile app that helps farmers and crop advisors control aphid populations in wheat, barley, oat or rye. It is based on Dr. Tyler Wist’s (AAFC-Saskatoon) innovative Dynamic Action Threshold model. The model treats the grain field as an ecosystem and takes into account many complex biological interactions including:

  • the number of aphids observed and how quickly they reproduce
  • the number of different natural enemies of aphids in the field and how many aphids they eat or parasitize per day
  • the lifecycles of aphids and their enemies taking into account developmental stages, egg laying behaviour, population growth rate, lifespan, etc.

By taking into consideration factors like these, the app predicts what the aphid population will be in seven days and the best time to apply insecticide based on economic thresholds.

Available in iOS and Android.

To learn more and to download, go to AAFC’s CAM webpage.

Note: Cereal aphids can blow up from the South at any time which cannot be predicted by the app. Therefore, farmers and crop advisors should regularly check fields during the growing season regardless of what Cereal Aphid Manager Mobile may recommend.

CAM Homepage
CAM monitoring report and recommendation
CAM icon

Cereal Aphid Manager (CAM)

Reminder – Aphids can cause significant damage to fields and increase crop losses, but just because aphids are present in a grain field doesn’t mean they will have a negative economic impact on production. This is especially true if there are aphid’s natural enemies (beneficial insects) in the field to keep them under control.

The Cereal Aphid Manager is an easy-to-use mobile app that helps farmers and crop advisors control aphid populations in wheat, barley, oat or rye. It is based on Dr. Tyler Wist’s (AAFC-Saskatoon) innovative Dynamic Action Threshold model. The model treats the grain field as an ecosystem and takes into account many complex biological interactions including:

  • the number of aphids observed and how quickly they reproduce
  • the number of different natural enemies of aphids in the field and how many aphids they eat or parasitize per day
  • the lifecycles of aphids and their enemies taking into account developmental stages, egg laying behaviour, population growth rate, lifespan, etc.

By taking into consideration factors like these, the app predicts what the aphid population will be in seven days and the best time to apply insecticide based on economic thresholds.

Available in iOS and Android.

To learn more and to download, go to AAFC’s CAM webpage.

Note: Cereal aphids can blow up from the South at any time which cannot be predicted by the app. Therefore, farmers and crop advisors should regularly check fields during the growing season regardless of what Cereal Aphid Manager Mobile may recommend.

CAM Homepage
CAM monitoring report and recommendation
CAM icon

Insect of the Week – Bruner grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

The insect of the week is the Bruner grasshopper (Melanoplus bruneri).  Observed since the 1920s in Canada, this species is a relatively recent addition to the list of grasshopper pest species occurring in crop production areas. Previously, it was not considered a crop pest.

It is a medium-sized grasshopper (males 18-22 mm; females 22-27 mm) with dark and often reddish colour tones. It is similar in appearance and size to the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) but is distinguished by differences in the male genitalia. The Bruner grasshopper has recently become the predominant grasshopper species in many northern crop production areas of Alberta and parts of Saskatchewan. It occupies a wide geographic range and is found throughout much of Canada and the United States.

The Bruner grasshopper feeds mainly on broadleaf host plants but the species can feed upon several species of grasses. It has been observed in high numbers feeding in pulse crops, canola, and cereals.

Researchers are investigating if this species follows a two-year life cycle (i.e. do eggs require exposure to two winters before hatching?) in the Peace River region and parts of central Alberta.

For more information, see our Insect of the Week page!

Bruner grasshopper (Melanoplus bruneri) adult.
Photo credit: S. Barkley, Alberta Agriculture and Forestry.

Access these websites for more information related to the Bruner Grasshopper:

Access more information related to grasshoppers here.

Wireworm distribution map

Reminder – Last week turned out to be our wireworm blitz!  This complicated group of insect species was featured in the Insect of the Week AND we include the survey results again this week!

The following maps summarize the main results of a survey of pest species of wireworms of the Canadian Prairie Provinces.  Samples (both larvae and beetles) were submitted to Dr. Bob Vernon’s lab in Agassiz, BC, from 2004 to 2017, and identified by Dr. Wim van Herk (Fig. 1).  Species identifications were confirmed with barcoding.

Figure 1.  Sampling locations for click beetles and wireworm larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) submitted for wireworm surveying from 2004-2017.

Approximately 600 samples were submitted, with the number of larvae per sample typically less than five (Fig. 1).  More samples are welcome, particularly from areas currently not well represented on the maps.  Please provide either the legal land description or latitude and longitude coordinates with a sample.  Any information on the cropping history or whether fields were irrigated is helpful.

Review the complete survey summary posted in Week 05 (for Jun 7, 2018).

Disclaimer: 
Please do not distribute or use the contents of this post, including any maps, without obtaining prior permission.

Obtain further information or arrange shipment of wireworm or click beetle samples by contacting:
Dr. Wim van Herk
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Agassiz Research and Development Centre
6947 Highway 7, Agassiz, BC, V0M 1A0
wim.vanherk@agr.gc.ca

Insect of the Week – Wireworms

This week’s Insect of the Week is a
frustrating pest of many crops: wireworm. Wireworms are the soil-dwelling
larval stage of the click beetles (Elateridae). There are hundreds of click
beetle species in the prairies, but the term wireworm refers to those that are pests,
which in Canada is approximately 20 species. 
With the loss of effective insecticides (e.g. lindane), wireworms have
re-emerged in recent years as primary pests of potato, cereals, and vegetables.
On the prairies, we have 3 predominant pest species (Selatosomus destructor, Limonius
californicus
, and Hypnoidus bicolor;
see photo), and their larvae vary (among other things) in life history (2-7
years), color (white to orange), cuticle thickness, distribution, behaviour, and
susceptibility to insecticides.

Wireworms are patchy in distribution, difficult
to monitor, and difficult to kill. We have a lot to learn about these resilient
pests. Since the mid-1990’s AAFC has had a national research team (Bob Vernon
et al.) screening for effective insecticides and developing trapping and monitoring
methods, cultural controls (e.g., crop rotation), and biocontrols to manage the
adult and larval forms of these pests.

For more information about wireworms, check out our Insect of the Week page!

The three most troublesome wireworm species on the prairies in their adult
and larval stages. Note the different sizes and colours. From left to right,
S. destructor, L. californicus, H. bicolor.
Photo by David Shack, AAFC-Lethbridge.
For more information, please contact Dr. Haley Catton (AAFC-Lethbridge) or Dr. Wim van Herk (AAFC-Agassiz)

Also link here to access a summary of Wireworm surveying (2004-2017) conducted across the Canadian prairies by van Herk and Vernon (AAFC-Agassiz).

Wireworm distribution map

The following maps summarize the main results of a survey of pest species of wireworms of the Canadian Prairie Provinces.  Samples (both larvae and beetles) were submitted to Dr. Bob Vernon’s lab in Agassiz, BC, from 2004 to 2017, and identified by Dr. Wim van Herk (Fig. 1).  Species identifications were confirmed with barcoding.

Figure 1.  Sampling locations for click beetles and wireworm larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) submitted for wireworm surveying from 2004-2017.

Approximately 600 samples were submitted, with the number of larvae per sample typically less than five (Fig. 1).  More samples are welcome, particularly from areas currently not well represented on the maps.  Please provide either the legal land description or latitude and longitude coordinates with a sample.  Any information on the cropping history or whether fields were irrigated is helpful.

The main findings of this survey are that:
1. Wireworms are re-emerging as primary pests of cereals and other crops, particularly in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan.  This can be attributed to several factors, including changes in seeding and cultivation resulting in higher soil moisture and increased food availability, and therefore greater wireworm survival; the elimination of effective insecticides such as lindane and the decline of organochlorine residues in the soil; and the present lack of insecticides that actually kill wireworms.

2. Limonius californicus is generally the predominant pest species in fields reporting heavy wireworm damage, occasionally building up to very high populations and resulting in complete crop wrecks (Fig. 2).  This was not the case when Glen et al. (1943) or Doane (1977) conducted their surveys; L. californicus was considered a minor species at those times.  Selatosomus destructor (Fig. 3) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Fig. 4) are still the most common species.  The pest status of another commonly found species, the predaceous Aeolus mellillus (Fig. 5), is unclear.  The following species listed by Glen et al. (1943) as pests of agriculture in the Prairie Provinces were found also, but infrequently: Agriotes mancusA. criddleiA. stabilisHemicrepidius memnoniusL. pectoralis, and various Dalopius sp.

Figure 2.  Distribution of Limonius californicus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) submitted for
wireworm surveying from 2004-2017.
Figure 3.  Distribution of Selatosomus destructor (Coleoptera: Elateridae) submitted for
wireworm surveying from 2004-2017.
Figure 4.  Distribution of Hypniodes bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae) submitted for
wireworm surveying from 2004-2017.
Figure 5. Distribution of Aeolus mellillus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) submitted for
wireworm surveying from 2004-2017.

3. Multiple pest species are frequently found in the same fields where damage is reported (i.e. about 25% of the time, despite the small number of larvae per sample).  This is particularly important as pest species can vary considerably in the type of damage they cause (e.g. it remains unclear if H. bicolor is damaging to potato), their life history (e.g. duration of the larval stage), and susceptibility to insecticides.

Details related to the biology and management of these species are reviewed in van Herk and Vernon (2014) and Vernon and van Herk (2013).

Acknowledgements:
These maps are only possible thanks to the collections done by a large team of local entomologists and agrologists.  We are extremely grateful to them; thank you to everyone who participated!  A special thank you to Ted Labun and colleagues at Syngenta Crop Protection (Canada), and to Bayer CropScience, for providing the bulk of the samples. 

Disclaimer: 
Please do not distribute or use the contents of this post, including any maps, without obtaining prior permission.

Obtain further information or arrange shipment of wireworm or click beetle samples by contacting:
Dr. Wim van Herk
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Agassiz Research and Development Centre
6947 Highway 7, Agassiz, BC, V0M 1A0
wim.vanherk@agr.gc.ca

Further wireworm reading:
Burrage RH (1964) Trends in damage by wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in grain crops in Saskatchewan, 1954–1961. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 44: 515–519.  https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps64-102 


Doane JF (1977) Spatial pattern and density of Ctenicera destructor and Hypolithus bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in soil in spring wheat. The Canadian Entomologist 109: 807–822. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent109807-6


Doane JF (1977) The flat wireworm, Aeolus mellillus: studies on seasonal occurrence of adults and incidence of the larvae in the wireworm complex attacking wheat in Saskatchewan. Environmental Entomology 6: 818–822. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/6.6.818 


Glen R, King KM, Arnason AP (1943) The identification of wireworms of economic importance in Canada. Canadian Journal of Research 21: 358-387. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjr43d-030


van Herk WG, Vernon RS (2014) Click beetles and wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.  In: Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands (Volume 4): Biodiversity and Systematics Part 2. (Edited by D.J. Giberson and H.A. Carcamo).  Biological Survey of Canada, pp. 87-117. https://biologicalsurvey.ca/monographs/read/17


Vernon RS, van Herk WG (2013) Wireworms as pests of potato. In: Insect pests of potato: Global perspectives on biology and management.  (Edited by P. Giordanengo, C. Vincent, A. Alyokhin).  Academic Press, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 103–164.  https://www.elsevier.com/books/insect-pests-of-potato/alyokhin/978-0-12-386895-4 


Zacharuk RY (1962) Distribution, habits, and development of Ctenicera destructor (Brown) in western Canada, with notes on the related species C. aeripennis (Kby.) (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 40: 539–552.  https://doi.org/10.1139/z62-046

Are cereal aphids damaging your crops? There’s now an app for that: Cereal Aphid Manager (CAM)

Aphids can cause significant damage to fields and increase crop losses, but just because aphids are present in a grain field doesn’t mean they will have a negative economic impact on production. This is especially true if there are aphid’s natural enemies (beneficial insects) in the field to keep them under control.
The Cereal Aphid Manager is an easy-to-use mobile app that helps farmers and crop advisors control aphid populations in wheat, barley, oat or rye. It is based on Dr. Tyler Wist’s (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Field Crop Entomologist) innovative Dynamic Action Threshold model. The model treats the grain field as an ecosystem and takes into account many complex biological interactions including:
  • the number of aphids observed and how quickly they reproduce
  • the number of different natural enemies of aphids in the field and how many aphids they eat or parasitize per day
  • the lifecycles of aphids and their enemies taking into account developmental stages, egg laying behaviour, population growth rate, lifespan, etc.
By taking into consideration factors like these, the app predicts what the aphid population will be in seven days and the best time to apply insecticide based on economic thresholds.
Available in iOS and Android.
To learn more and to download, go to AAFC’s CAM webpage.
Note: Cereal aphids can blow up from the South at any time which cannot be predicted by the app. Therefore, farmers and crop advisors should regularly check fields during the growing season regardless of what Cereal Aphid Manager Mobile may recommend.



CAM Homepage

CAM monitoring report and recommendation

CAM icon